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The checked column refers to whether or not an entry has been verified for accuracy. -1 and -2 entries still need to be reviewed, so feel free to do so...

Grammar/Categories including

typeENJPmeaninggroup# ex.checked
GR(de)sura 〜(で)すらjust / even if1210
GR(go,o,mi,on) (honorific) respected-___460
PH(short present) + to (ii desu ne / iin desu ga) と いいですね / いいんですがyou can use the present tense short form + (to ii desu ne) to hope something good happens for others. If you hope for your own good, use (to iin desu ga). if the action is under your control, you should first change the verb to potential form.000
GR(yo)uga,(yo)uto (よ)うが, (よ)うと ようが ようと"even if", "no matter what" (people say etc.), strong expression that contains the idea of concession150
GR(yo)uto~mai, (yo)uga~mai (よ)うと〜まい, (よ)うが〜まい, ようと〜まい, ようRegardless of whether or not140
GR-hajimeru 〜始めるto begin/start VERB-ing480
PHabbreviations 略語abbreviations046-1
GRAdana, Nikkuneemu あだ名 (綽名・渾名)、ニックネームnick name420
PHaddress Addressing Peopleaddressing yourself and others in conversation000
PHadgobi -Using Adverbs and Gobi000
PHadjectives 形容詞Adjectives000
GRadjectives_ex Adjective Practice ExercisesAdjective Practice Exercises400
GRadvanced -Advanced Topics300
GRadv_volitional Advanced VolitionalAdvanced Volitional (まい、であろう、かろう)400
GRageku 挙げ句in the end, afterall214-1
GRageru 上げるto do something for someone else390
GRamari 余りnot much, too much2210
GRAmari 2 あまり〜(動詞)〜ないNot really200
GRamari-2 あまりnot really37-1
GRamari-nai あまり + 動詞(否定形)not very, not much318-1
PHamarino ~ ni あまりの〜にDue to a condition/state being in excess, a result occurs.020
PHamount -Expressing various degrees of amounts000
GRano あのthat480
PHapologies 謝罪sorry!0130
GRarebakoso あればこそparticularly thanks to17-1
GRarieru ありうる, ありえる (有り得る)To be possible, to be conceivable24-1
GRariuru 有り得るto be possible, to be likely2110
GRaru 有るis (inanimate)4130
GRarumajiki あるまじきIt's not proper120
GRat-the-time-group そのときat the time21-1
PHattachments 添付I'm attaching the presentation527-1
GRatteno あってのThanks to (various things), (outcome)170
GRatto iu ma あっと言う間In a flash, before one knows it, in a blink of an eye, in no time, flash by, (time) flies380
GRau 合うVm, verb~together, mutually380
PHBaka 馬鹿stupid person010
GRbakari ばかりjust (just recently) / nothing but3180
GRbakarika ばかりかnot just, but also2130
GRbakarini ばかりにbecause (of a negative thing); simply because; simply on account of270
GRBasic Japanese Grammar 基本的な 日本語 文法Basic Grammar Terms400
PHbasicgram -Basic Grammatical Structures000
GRbasis-of-action-group ように・とおりに・を中心に・に沿って・をもとにしてas, along with, like200
GRba~hodo 条件形〜ほどthe more +V(+A), the more ...2220
PHbecome, became, becoming youninaruindicates a change which has taken place or will take place020
GRbekarazaru 〜べからざるmust not; cannot150
GRbekarazu 〜べからずmust not210-1
GRbeki べきshould do Vru380
GRbekida べきだV, ought to, must2180
GRbeku 〜べくFor the purpose of; To ____, In order to150
GRbonyari ぼんやりabsent-minded(ly); blank(ly)230
PHbooks 本についてI like to read6270
GRbright akaruibright4100
GRbuchouhou 不調法 or 無調法A rudeness or blunder, carelessness120
PHburi ~ぶりfirst time in ~030
GRbutting in 邪魔するhey, do you have a sec?250
GRcasual Casual Patterns and SlangCasual Patterns and Slang300
PHcatalog カタログhere is our catalog0340
GRCausative せる・させるmake, let (someone do something)330
PHcertainty -Expressing various levels of certainty (かもしれない、でしょう、だろう)000
GRclose_actions Advanced proximity of actionsAdvanced proximity of actions (が早いか、や否や、そばから)100
PHclosings 結語closing an email535-1
PHcoffee コーヒーI like mine black6210
PHcompany-intro 会社紹介we are #1 in our field5760
PHcompare -Using 方 and よる for comparisons and other functions (より、の方、stem+方、によって、によると)000
PHcompound -Compound Sentences000
PHconditional -Conditional Expressions020
PHcongratulations おめでとう!well done!51010
PHcontract 契約についてrelating contracts, modifications554-1
PHcopula -Declaring something is so and so using 「だ」000
GRcopula_ex State-of-Being Practice ExercisesState-of-Being Practice Exercises400
GRcovered Covered by somethingCovered by something (だらけ、まみれ、ずくめ)200
GRda 〜だThe 'copula' : expresses conditions. X is Y.4120
GRdai 〜だい? (for casual questions)340
PHdakarakoso だからこそ(just) because of 040
PHdakaratoitte だからといって However.. / It doesn't follow that .../ But it doesn't mean that..010
GRdake だけ1) just, only, simply, merely; 2) as much as X wants/like/can (whatever, anything)241-1
GRdakeatte だけあってbecause, as expected (used for positive things)290
GRdakeni だけにas expected, after all260
GRdakeno 〜だけのAs much as; As fast as; To the extent of.2120
GRdakenokotohaaru だけのことはあるis surely because 〜; not surprising that 〜; It was worth 〜260
GRdani 〜だにEven; just112-1
GRdarake だらけcovered with; littered with; infested with,full of219-1
GRdarou だろうis, would be, probably is; isn't it?3150
GRdashita だしたBegan/Begun, Started4240
GRdasu dashite dashita 出す、出して、出したto pay, to place, to issue, to stick out, to put forth, to serve, 300
PHdays days of the month000
GRde 〜でby means of, by, [action] at a place4150
GRde, ni, mae で・に・前 time and place prepositions at in on3140
GRdeare 〜であれNo matter what; Even if; No matter how180
GRdeare~deare 〜であれ〜であれWhether X or Y; A structure that means "no matter which one is the case"160
GRdearou であろうI guess, wonder, probably, isn't it? 35-1
GRdearou to であろうとNo matter what; Even if; No matter how230
PHdearouga であろうがA or B doesn't matter, at least I want C020
GRdearu であるTo be, is (formal equivalent of だ [da])340
GRdehaarumaishi ではあるまいし"It's not as if" giving a reason why something should not be how it is130
PHdekirudake できるだけas soon/early as possible060
PHdelays 納入や出荷遅延の苦情sorry its late!5291
PHdelivery 納品sending the goods546-1
GRdemo でもbut440
GRdenakute-nandarou 〜でなくてなんだろうIf thats not ... I don't know what is130
GRdenakuteha でなくてはif not.. then noone180
GRdepend-correspond-group によって・次第で・いかんでdepending on, according to200
PHdesire -Desire and Suggestions000
GRdetamaranai/tetamaranai 〜でたまらない・〜てたまらないso...that one can`t stand it; unbearably;extremely260
PHdirections 行き方how to get give directions010
PHdochirakatoieba どちらかといえばIf I had my druthers030
GRdokorodehanai, dokorodehanaku どころではない、どころではなくnot at all; far from; anything but; out of the question222-1
GRdokoroka どころかfar from A, in fact B; not just; even2340
PHdone, did bakarihave just done something; have just finished doing something’030
GRdonna どんなWhatever; whoever, etc.170
GRdoumo どうもapparently, naturally17-1
GRdouse どうせafter all; eventually; at best35-1
GRdoushite どうしてwhy?, what for?440
GRdoushitemo どうしてもabsolutely, surely, by all means, no matter what, at any cost; after all320
GRdouyara どうやらit seems, apparently, somehow1140
PHdouzo どうぞgo ahead; be my guest0130
PHeasyhard -Saying something is easy or difficult to do (〜やすい、〜にくい)000
GReba 条件形if3100
GRem enem100
PHemail メールの内容についてregarding this email512-1
PHenduring -Other uses of the te-form (〜ている、〜てある、〜ておく、〜ていく、〜てくる)000
GReru 得るto get, to win, to be possible2160
PHessential -Grammar you must know000
GRevaluation-group わりに・にしては・向きにfor150
PHeven -Expressing the minimum expectation000
PHexhibition 展示会an exhibition of software5130
PHfavor, favour 授受Giving and Receiving (あげる、やる、くれる、もらう)000
GRfeasibility Expressions of non-feasibilityFormal expressions of non-feasibility (〜ざるを得ない、やむを得ない、〜かねる)200
PHfeedback feedbackfeedback000
PHflashFB feedback on the flash quiz000
PHflashQuiz 文法クイズFlash Grammar Quiz000
PHfollow-up 会議の後524-1
PHformal -Formal Expressions (である、ではない)000
PHfriends 友達についてall you need is...6800
GRfuto ふとsuddenly, by coincidence124-1
GRfuu Style26-1
GRfuuni という風にin that way270
GRga 〜が(subject marker)4130
GRga suru がするto affect the senses (to taste, to smell of, to feel like, to give the sensation of etc.)340
GRga-2 〜がbut4180
GRgachi がちtend to1190
GRgahayaika 〜が早いか as soon as19-1
GRgari がりVm, tend to, sensitive to230
GRgaru がるAb ~seems (of somebody else's emotions & desires)380
GRgasaigo 〜が最後If s.o. does s.t for even a moment, the following result will necessarily occur • Once someone starts something, the person can’t stop it160
GRgatai がたいVm, ~ difficult to2110
GRgatera がてらwhile doing something14-1
GRge Ab, seems (〜そう)290
PHgenericnoun -Special expressions with generic nouns (こと、ところ、もの)000
GRGerrund form of Verb + naka de 進行形の動詞+中でOut of (Clause A) there is B, C, D etc etc200
GRGerrund form of Verb + nakade 進行形の動詞+中でOut of (Clause A) there is B, C, D etc etc200
GRgimi 気味Vm、N slight tendency toward, seems like, feels so..211-1
PHgokensonwo ご謙遜をdon't be modest0140
PHGokuryuuha ごくりゅうはHell's Dragon000
PHgomottomo ごもっともappropriate, absolutely right. Response to opinions one agrees with0170
PHgosinpainaku ご心配なくdo not worry0140
GRgotoki,gotoku,gotoshi ごとき, ごとく, ごとしLike, As if; resembelence, analogy, similarity1160
PHgreetings 挨拶casual intros6300
PHGroup 1 Verb Exceptions 五段動詞ー特例A list of -eru and -iru verbs that conjugate as Group 1080
GRha 〜は'topic marker' (also shown as 'wa')460
GRha-2 〜は'ha (wa)' used to indicate contrast360
PHha-3 (In mathematics), roughly "is/equals"090
PHhacchakeru はっちゃけるTo party, unwind and have a good time in order to forget stresses and problems000
GRhaiumademonaku は言うまでもなくgoes without saying/not to mention1210
PHhajimeta 読み始めたstarted to000
GRhakadoru はかどる (捗る)Make progress140
GRhakanai 儚いhopeless, fleeting, transient, fickle39-1
GRhamochiron はもちろんnot to mention; not only, but also;2180
GRhamotoyori はもとよりto begin with ... and also ...260
GRhanmen 〜反面on the other hand250
GRhaoroka 〜は愚か・〜は疎かlet alone B; not to mention; of course A but also B; 1110
GRhasateoki 〜はさておきleaving aside, aside from271
GRhatashite 果たしてreally, as was expected170
GRhatomokaku はともかくleaving A aside, A is good, but B is another thing250
GRhazu believe that it is so; expect that it is so; it is supposed to be so323-1
GRhe 〜へindicates direction of verb. Also pronounced 'e'440
PHhiitewa 〜ひいてはwhich in turn010
GRhiragana ひらがなHiragana is the basic Japanese phonetic alphabet.400
GRhiragana_ex ひらがな Practice Exercisesひらがな Practice Exercises-400
GRhitoiki 一息a short period of time270
GRhitori-dakedenaku,hitori-nominarazu ひとり〜だけでなく, ひとり〜のみならずnot only (A) but also (B)170
GRhitoridemoooku 一人でも多くMore than one person200
PHhitotsutottemo ひとつとってもOne example being, for example020
GRhodo 〜程the more... the more... as along with2170
GRhodo-2 ほど-2to the extent of; to the extent that ~; (not as) ~ as ~ ; about [REL. bakari; kurai] 340
GRhododa; hodono ほどだ; ほどのalmost/nearly; to the point of; like that; such as that27-1
GRhokanai ほかないnothing else to do but...290
PHhonorhum -Honorific and Humble Forms000
PHhontoni 本当にreally; truly000
GRhoshii が欲しいN, to want something (desirative)314-1
GRhotondo ほとんど (殆・殆ど)most of / rarely330
GRhouga 方が(often it'd be better to do __) Such-and-such an option is something370
GRHow to write a Japanese letter 日本語の手紙の書き方Grammar points for writing in Japanese300
GRI-adjective Conjugation い形容詞変化How to conjugate regular adjectives ending in "i".480
GRi-adjectives 大きいusing adjectives470
GRichido-tara 一度〜たらonce220
GRijou 以上Vru, since; now that; once; as long as280
GRijou-2 以上exceeding, above221-2
GRikan いかん (如何)based on116-1
GRikanaru-demo いかなる〜でも (如何なる〜でも)whatever ~160
PHikani-temo いかに〜てもno matter how020
GRikanimo いかにもseems (but is not); indeed1190
GRikanniyorazu いかんによらずwithout regard to140
GRikura いくら (幾等)how much4150
PHimada 未だyet / as yet / so far/ not yet020
GRImada ni 未だにStill, yet150
PHimadeha 今では"(by) now"; "nowadays"040
GRimagoroninatte 今ごろになって ~もit's already too late170
GRimakaraomoeba 今から思えばLooking back on it now130
GRimasara-tatokorode 今さら〜たところでit's already too late, It's no use doing s.t. now150
PHIn some manner DokotonakuVaguely; in some manner020
PHindex -Tae Kim's Guide to Japanese Grammar000
PHinquiry お問い合わせmaking and responding to inquiries5121-1
PHintro 自己紹介self introduction6100
PHintroductions 紹介した際introducing your company567-1
PHinvitation 招待please join us532-2
GRippou 一方on the other hand, on the other side, one-way2160
GRippouda 一方だincreasing tendency260
GRippoudeha 一方ではon the one hand . . . [can also mean "on the other hand"]260
GRirai 依頼Request or commission110
GRirarenai 居られないcannot exist, not possible, can't afford to13-1
GRiru いる (居る)Is (animate)4110
PHis, am, are da / desuis, am, are0890
PHis, am, are (polite, NA-adjective) desuis, am, are000
GRitadakimasu 頂きますto receive26-1
GRitadaku 頂くto receive (polite)150
GRitashimasu 致しますdo (humble)250
GRitasu 致すto do (humble)120
PHittai 一体why, who, what on earth~0140
GRJaki 邪気Malice, bad feeling300
PHjikangatatsu 時間がたつpassing of time; 0120
GRjou point of view211-1
GRjoude 上でIn, On230
PHjuu/chuu じゅう/ちゅうthroughout, through, during all0110
GRka 〜か? (basic question particle)440
GRka shira. かしら。I wonder if... (A type of question mark)300
GRka-2 〜かwhether, the question of (sub sentence question)370
GRkadouka かどうかwhether, if3110
GRkadoukanouchini かどうかのうちにjust at the time when220
GRkaette かえってon the contrary2120
GRkagiri 限りas far as, as long as, until, unless2440
GRkagirida 限りだextremely210
PHkai 〜かい? (for casual questions)020
GRkai. かい。(A type of question mark)300
GRkakaru 2 掛かる 2AT〜; ON〜210
GRkakeda かけだin the middle of something210
GRkakeda; kakeno; kakeru かけだ・かけの・かけるin the middle of; not yet finished V-ing270
GRkakeru 2 掛ける 2AT〜; TO〜200
GRkaketa かけたstarted but not finished1130
GRkana 〜かなI wonder.. (Based on か question particle.)350
GRkanaikanouchini か〜ないかのうちにNo sooner than; just as, at that instant280
PHkananika か何かor something like that0140
GRkanarazushimo 必ずしもnot necessarily2121
GRkanawanai かなわない(I/he/she/....) can not stand..... 230
GRkanenai かねないVm, capable of (a bad thing)223-1
GRkaneru 兼ねるhesitate to, cannot, hard to do215-1
GRkanete 兼ねてcombine with151
GRkanji 漢字Writing system based on ancient chinese pictographs400
PHKanji Picture Dictionary 漢英字典A flash kanji dictionary tool 010
GRkanjipic 漢字写真a tool to look up photos based on kanji200
GRkankei 関係relationship, relation (between/to)250
GRkanogotoku かのごとくas if130
GRkanousei 可能性Existence of possibility350
GRkanoyouda かのようだlike, as if (metaphor)213-1
GRKansai Dialect Kansai DialectKansai Dialect200
GRkara からbecause440
GRkara-2 からfrom470
PHkara-nikakete から〜にかけてfrom ... until05-1
GRkaraiuto からいうとfrom the standpoint of26-1
GRkarakoso-2 〜からこそespecially because (non-intuitive nuance)240
GRkaramiruto から見るとseen from the point of view290
GRkaraniha からにはso long as, since27-2
GRkarashite からして(1)Even; (2)Given, (Judging) From/By280
PHkarashite- 2 からしてSince; because; Consequently020
GRkarasuruto からするとfrom, you can judge, based on214-1
GRkarasuruto-2 からするとfrom (the point of view)110-2
GRkaratoitte からといってjust because2201
GRkaroujite 辛うじてbarely180
GRkata -方how to _____, way to _____, 330
GRkatagata かたがた(旁)at the same time, incidentally130
PHkatakana カタカナ-020
GRkatakana_ex カタカナ Practice Exercisesカタカナ Practice Exercises400
GRkatawara かたわらbeside27-1
GRkatawara 〜かたわら (傍ら)not only, ...also (This expression is only used in writing)17-1
GRkatoomouto かと思うとas soon as I noticed, almost immediately24-1
GRkatoomouto-2 かと思うとWhen I think it may240
GRkawakirini かわきりに, 皮切りにbeginning of, starting with160
GRkawarini かわりにin place of; instead of2150
GRkawarini-2 代わりにto make up for, in exchange for250
GRkawaru-group かわるinstead of / in place of200
PHkeigo-1 敬語basic keigo000
GRkekka 結果as a result of2100
GRkeredomo けれどもbut, however440
GRkigasuru 気がするto feel, realize226-1
GRkigatsuita 気が付いたI realized14-1
GRkikkake きっかけtrigger224-1
GRkikkakeni きっかけにSince; Take the opportunity afforded by 〜 to 〜2100
GRkininaru 気になるthinking about, concerned about, worried about330
GRkiraigaaru きらいがあるthere is a tendency for ~ to happen (and it is somewhat bad and/or a cause for concern)130
GRkiri1 きりjust, only290
GRkiri2 きり just, for good, once and for all (keeps on same state)2120
GRkiru 切るverb-totally221-2
GRkiwamarinai/ kiwamaru 極まりない/ 極まるunlimited, extremely, boundlessly13-1
GRkiwamaru 〜極まるExtremely; The height of…; Knows no bounds. Always has a negative meaning.270
GRkke 〜っけ~?, like か2140
GRkkonai っこないVpm, impossible to270
GRkomu 込む...into210
GRkonasu 〜こなす, こなすhave the knack to deal with something; completely2150
GRkonna こんなsuch; this; like this; this; of this kind319-1
GRkononinaru 200
GRkore, sore, are これ(此・是・之・惟)、それ(其), あれ(彼)this, that, the other430
GRkoreijyou-ba これ以上〜ばif ~ any more than this140
GRkoso 〜こそthis, especially (emphasis),very2120
GRkoto ga aru ことがあるThere are times when290
GRkoto ha nai ことはないno need to250
GRkoto ni naru ことになるit has been decided/arranged that320
PHkoto ni suru ことにする(I/you/he/she/we/they) has/have decided that...010
GRkotoda ことだshould2110
GRkotodakara ことだからas always270
GRkotoka 〜ことかa lot2100
GRkotokara 〜ことからbecause2130
GRkotonaku 事無くwithout216-1
GRkotonashini ことなしにIn examples such as "Without A, I can't do B" where, without Action A, there is no possibility of B130
GRkotoni 〜ことに 「は」Very; Quite; The 〜 thing is that....27-1
GRkotoni-group ことに〜I decided, it was decided, it is a rule200
GRkotoninaru ことになるTo be decided, to be arranged270
GRkotoninatteiru ことになっているbecame a rule; been decided that; expected to; supposed to223-1
GRkotonisuru ことにするDecide to do something320
GRkototote こととてbecause/since - explains the cause or gives a reason for 160
GRkousyou 交渉getting the right terms1105-1
GRkudasai 下さいplease2210
PHkudasaimasenka 下さいませんかkudaisamasenka0140
GRkurabemononinaranai 比べものにならないthere is no point comparing....270
GRkurai くらいabout, as2260
GRkurai, gurai くらい、ぐらい (位)to the extent that; so ~ that ~ almost ~; at least; the only ~; rather than ~ 370
GRkurai.....wanai くらい〜はないA is the most B thing. There is not a more B thing than A is.24-1
GRkurainara-hougaii くらいなら〜〜ほうがいいShow a strong feeling of opposition.2110
GRkureru くれる (呉れる)to give me, to do for me, I was given 3120
GRkuseni くせにalthough, despite2190
PHLinks リンク集Related cool sites000
GRlooks/seems/heard-group よう・そう・らしい・聞いたlooks like or seems like200
PHlunch 昼飯6460
GRmadashimo まだしもwould be much better, would be acceptable140
GRmade までtill, to480
GRmademonai までもないNo need to1110
GRmadeni までにby __[day, date, time, etc.]__310
GRmaeni 前にbefore [action]331
GRmai-1 〜まいwon't (do something)250
GRmai-2 〜まいprobably won't223-1
GRmai-4 〜まいDon't do ~230
GRmaika まいかwill not [expresses a little uncertainty]260
GRmaika-2 まいかwon't you?210
GRmajiki 〜まじきnot likely130
GRmama ままas it is, leave as it is, (remain) unchanged370
GRmamire まみれ (塗れ)covered in st (名詞+に+まみれる); (名詞+まみれ)160
PHmanten 満点Full score000
GRmarude 丸でas if, practically241-1
GRmarude _______ no you na まるで_____のようなjust like, alike to,300
GRmarude-2 まるでcompletely, entirely29-1
GRmasaka まさかincredible!150
GRmasakano まさかの〜If unexpectedly there is anything , 〜160
PHmashite ya ましてやLet alone, still, much less060
GRmashite ~ hazuganai まして〜はずがないit is even more unlikely that 〜120
PHmeetings 会議setting up meeting times544-1
GRmeku めくlike / ish130
PHmisc 色々other stuff06-2
GRmiseru みせるam determined to150
GRmiseru-2 みせるto show2210
GRmitai みたいlooks like360
GRmitai na みたいなlike, alike to400
GRmitamewatomokaku 見た目はともかくWhether (it/he/she~) is~~~or not, 230
GRmo 〜もalso480
GRmo-2 〜も(with -ve) neither ... nor , also not, either440
GRmo-ba-mo も〜ば〜もnot only, but also260
GRmoba も〜ばBoth(,,,,)and(,,,,,)220
GRmokamawazu 〜もかまわずdont mind, dont care about230
PHmon 〜もんUsed to reply dissatisfaction in very casual speech640
GRmono 〜ものbecause, should, like to240
GRmonoda ものだa thing that, the thing25-2
GRmonoda-2 ものだ(thing) you know? isn't it?217-1
GRmonodakara 〜ものだからso, therefore (explaining something unavoidable)250
GRmonode ものでbecause of (that thing)230
GRmonodesukara ものですからbecause2110
GRmonogaaru 〜ものがあるthere is such a thing (essence), feels like213-1
GRmonoka ものかabsolutely not...280
GRmononara 〜ものならif .. is possible, then...2180
GRmonono 〜もののalthough29-1
GRmonowo ものをBut...! / But If (you) had just... / But (I) could have...170
GRmorau 貰うhave someone do something for you312-1
GRmosarukotonagara もさることながら (も然る事乍ら)is (such) but (____) is also180
PHmoshimoshi もしもしhello(on the phone)0140
PHmosikasite もしかしてis it possible0160
PHmotoi もといis wrong, rather010
PHmukeni 向けにfor, aimed at000
GRmuki 向きfor, facing, toward, aimed at212-1
PHmune concerning ... , regarding ... , that ... 010
GRmushiro むしろrather260
PHmy-job 仕事についてI wear a uniform at work620
GRna 〜な(particle used うぃth na-adjectives)330
GRna-2 〜なVru, (negative command - sentence ending particle)370
GRna-3 〜なVm na (positive command - sentence ending particle)220
GRnaa なあ、な〜、なAdds emphasis - sentence ending particle; Emphasizes personal desires350
GRnado 〜などand etc.350
GRnado; nanka; nante など; なんか; なんてand so on; and the like; for example; things like 〜216-1
GRnagai 長い、永いlong (length, time)460
GRnagara ながらVm, despite while, although2220
GRnagaramo ながらもNotwithstanding, even while, even though, as she was1110
GRnagarani ながらにsince (A) started, it has been continuously in the same state1100
GRnaibakarika ないばかりかNot only220
GRnaide ないでwithout420
GRnaidehairarenai ないではいられないcannot help but, cannot stop doing211-1
GRnaikotohanai ないことは(も)ないit isn't the case that 〜 not 〜; it is not that 〜 not 〜26-1
GRnaikotoniha ないことにはif (it's) not; unless214-1
GRnaimademo ないまでもexpressing the speaker's feeling that although an ideal action or state isn't possible, at least the next best action or stat is or should be available140
PHnaiyouni ないようにto avoid0140
GRnaka, ue, shita, etc. 〜中に、〜上に、〜下に、などTalking about relative location of an object380
GRnakereba narimasen なければなりませんmust ____; really should _____; it won't do if you don't ____.320
PHnakerebanaranai なければならないmust0150
GRnakucha なくちゃMust;Have to230
GRnakushite なくしてIf it wasn't for...160
PHnakutemosumu なくてもすむDon't have to 〜 (and are happy because of it)020
PHnamini 並みに, to the same degree as010
GRnani What490
GRnanode なのでsince280
GRnanoni 〜なのにbut, although (contrast, surprising)3210
GRnara ならif3100
GRnaradeha ならではunless / impossible if it's not / only possible with/by/at/etc / very difficult by any other~,1100
GRnaraizashirazu ならいざ知らずI'm not sure if it is [possible/so] but...130
GRnaratomokaku ならともかくI'm not sure if it is [possible/so] but...120
GRnari なりAs soon as160
GRnari2 なりexpresses continuing state120
GRnarini なりにin one's own way, one's own style1160
GRnari~nari 〜なり〜なりeither.... or....160
GRnaru なるUsed much like the な of na-adjectives - somewhat archaic.320
PHnarubeku なるべくas much, fast~ as possible03-2
GRnasai なさいInformal Imperative (request form)350
GRnashi なしwithout320
GRnashini なしにwithout (the thing "without" is s.t. that should naturally have been there)180
PHnazenara なぜならbecause: a reason for or to do (x). 000
GRndesu 〜んですexplain causes, reasons, grounds240
GRne 〜ねisn't it?4130
PHnegverb -Negative Verbs000
PHnegverb2 -More negative verbs (ないで、ず、〜ん、ぬ)000
PHnewSiteFB 新規サイトコメントを教えて!-000
GRni 〜に(location marker, time marker, direction marker)4160
GRni ataranai に あたらないno need to do st130
GRni koshita koto ha nai ga 〜に越したことは無いがNormally Its better to (You can never have too much)150
GRni wataru, ni watatte にわたる,にわたってfor,over,extending,stretching,ranging,covering220
GRni-2 〜にto, from (indirect object marker)450
GRniatatte; niatari に当たって; に当たりon the occasion of; at; in; before; prior to2161
GRniatte にあってbeing in/due to/suited to1130
GRnichigainai に違いないno mistake...definitely228-1
PHnidoto 二度とnever again0150
GRnihanshite に反してagainst, contrary to3220
GRnihikikae にひきかえin sharp contrast with; compared to180
GRnihitoshii に等しいequivalent to2140
GRnihokanaranai にほかならないnothing but; merely; none other than29-1
GRniitaru に至るleads to, all the way to, as far as1110
GRniitatte に至ってvery; very much; greatly; extremely.150
GRniizon, niison に依存depending on, relying on2100
GRnikagirazu に限らずnot just, limited to270
GRnikagitte に限ってof all the ... / especially / only / just3150
GRnikakawarazu かかわらずRegardless of2240
GRnikakawaru に関わるBrings about an effect on; relates to; a matter of1120
GRnikaketeha, nikaketemo にかけては, にかけてもregarding, about, concerning220
GRnikaketewa にかけてはregarding, about, concerning230
GRnikanshite に関してconcerning; with regard to; about; on2150
GRnikatakunai 〜に難くないnot hard to ...(名詞+にかたくない/ Vる+にかたくない)120
GRnikawatte 名詞が名詞に代わってuse Nounが instead of Nounに210-1
GRnikimatteiru にきまっている(It's been) decided; expected; definitely260
GRnikotaete に応えてin response to241
GRnikui にくいIs diffcult to do350
GRnikurabete 〜に比べてcompared to2130
GRnikuwaete に加えてin addition to2101
GRnimokakawarazu にもかかわらずdespite; though; although; in spite of2260
GRnimomashite にもましてabove everything; more than before180
GRnimotozuite に基づいてbased (up)on2100
GRninaru になるTo become34-1
GRnioite に於いてat/on/in this case223-1
GRniokeru における・おいてat, in, as for270
GRnioujite に応じて、に応じたcommensurate with, accordance with, depending on27-1
GRnisaishite に際してwhen; on the occasion of; at (the time of); in; upon (doing something)250
GRNisakidatte に先立ってbefore; preceeding; prior to210
GRnisakidatte; nisakidatsu に先立って; に先立つbefore; preceeding; prior to2110
GRnishiro,niseyo,nishitemo にしろ; にせ(も)よ; にしてもEven though; Even if; 215-2
GRnishiro,niseyo,nishitemo-2 にしろ; にせ(も)よ; にしてもIt doesn’t matter which; It doesn’t matter whether.25-1
GRnishitagatte; nishitagai に従って; に従いfollowing; in accordance with; as 〜, accordingly; in proportion to2120
GRnishitara 〜にしたらif (one had) 〜's perspective250
GRnishite 〜にしてonly; because of that14-2
GRnishitemo 〜にしてもeven for210-2
GRnishitewa 〜にしてはeven though (it is) ; for222-1
GRnisokushite に即してin line with, in keeping with1150
GRnisotte 〜に沿ってgo along with; in line with2170
GRnisouinai に相違ないNobody argues; definitely; without a doubt290
GRnisoutousuru に相当するequivalent1120
GRnisuginai に過ぎないnothing more than2160
GRnisuru にするto make.23-1
GRnisuru-2 にするTo decide on, to choose320
GRnitaenai1 〜にたえないcannot stand; cannot do; no value to170
GRnitaenai2 〜堪えないEmphasizing a strong emotional reaction either good or bad130
GRnitaeru 〜にたえるhas value; it is worth doing140
GRnitaishite に対してtoward; to; in contrast to; whereas; in regard to; in; per2100
GRnitaru 〜に足るis plenty; has value260
GRnitomonatte に伴ってas; in proportion to; with2100
GRnitotte にとってto; for317-1
GRnitotteno にとってのto; for210-1
GRnitsuite についてregarding, about315-2
GRnitsuiteha についてはAs for ~ concerning ~212-1
GRnitsuke 〜につけeach time, whenever, either way270
GRnitsuki につきa, per, each212-1
GRnitsuki-2 〜につきdue to290
GRnitsurete につれてas; in proportion to; with219-1
GRniwatatte にわたってover; span(ning)213-1
GRniyoreba によればAccording to220
GRniyoruto によるとaccording to1110
GRniyotte によってby; according to; due to; owing to; due to1120
GRniyotte-2 によってdepending on24-1
GRno 〜の's, of440
GRno da のだexplanation320
GRno-2 〜のTurn a phrase ending in a verb into a 'noun phrase'340
GRno-3 〜の? (sentence ending particle - question) [F]3130
GRnoamari の余りbecause of too much2181
PHnochange -Leaving something the way it is (まま、っぱなし)000
GRnode のでbecause, and440
GRnoitari 〜の至りcompletely; utmost150
GRnokiwami の極みthe utmost ,ngu phap 1 kyuu170
GRnokotodakara のことだからas usual for220
GRnomi のみonly2130
GRnominarazu のみならずnot only, but also...270
GRnomotode のもとでbased on, under24-1
GRnoni のにdespite250
GRnoni-2 のにin order to, to350
PHnoni3 のにwish020
PHnotation 文法形grammar types060
PHnoyou の様seems like; looks like0140
GRnuki 抜きwithout212-1
GRnuku ぬくcompletely; until the end280
PHnumbers -Numbers and Counting000
GRokagede おかげでthanks to280
GRokeikini を契機にon the opportunity of240
GRoku おくto do it in advance OR to leave it in the current state expecting a later change2130
PHoldSiteFB フィードバックPlease offer feedback on the new site (design, functionality, etc.)000
PHopenings メールを初めてways to start a business email5480
PHorder 注文thanks for your order5470
GRosoregaaru 恐れがあるworry about, there is a possibility, there is fear that216-1
GRothergrammar Some Other GrammarSome Other Grammar (思いきや、がてら、あげく)100
GRotya wo nigosu お茶を濁すto avoid giving a direct answer100
PHparticles -Introduction to Particles (は、も、が)000
PHparticles2 -Particles used with verbs (を、に、へ、で)000
PHparticles3 -Noun-related Particles (と、や、とか、の)010
GRparticles_ex 「は、も、が」 Particle Exercises「は、も、が」 Particle Exercises400
GRpassive 〜れる・〜られるpassive verb ending310-1
PHpastverb -Past Tense000
GRpolite 礼儀正しい Polite Form and Verb Stems (〜です、〜ます)300
PHpotential -Potential Form000
GRppanashi 〜っぱなし (〜っ放し)Keep ~ing / To leave ~140
GRppoi っぽい-like2140
PHpretending わざとらしいfake, pretending 030
PHquestion -The Question Marker (か)000
PHquestions 質問put your questions in this category!65-2
PHquotation -Performing an action on a subordinate clause (と、って)000
PHQ~demo Q~でもQuestion word + demo = Question word + ever. (Whenever, wherever, whatever, whoever)010
GRrashii らしいseem, look like, apparently, I heard370
GRrashite 〜からしてstarting from210
PHreasoning -Hypothesizing and Concluding (わけ、〜とする)000
GRRespectful Verbs I 敬語どうしWill you _____?400
PHresults 結果5260
GRrokuni ろくに〜ないnot enogh , not much210
PHryuu 龒・龍・竜dragon000
PHSa 〜さA casual particle with a variety of meanings but generally used when one is trying to connect related ideas on the spot or set the background for an explanation or story000
GRsae さえeven; only; just2271
GRsae-ba 〜さえ〜ばIf ~ just If ~ only28-1
GRsai 〜際when220-1
GRsaichuuni 最中にright in the middle of260
GRsama wo miro, iikimi da yo, hora! 様を見ろ、いい気味だよ、ほら!I told you so, Serves you right, See!200
PHsamonaito さもないとor else, otherwise0140
GRsanagara さながらJust like190
GRsaseru させるmake, let someone do something390
GRsasuga さすが (流石)as expected, after all160
PHSaya さやSheath000
GRseide せいでbecause of, due to (indicates only negative meaning)214-1
GRseiippai 精一杯as hard as possible140
GRseinisuru せいにするPut blame on240
GRseizei せいぜい (精精)my utmost, at most112-1
GRsekkaku せっかくwith effort350
GRsemete せめてat least, at most a small thing110-2
PHseneba naranai せねばならないHave to, feel obliged to060
GRsengatame せんがためIn order to do140
GRshi and380
GRshidai 次第as soon as; depending on2140
GRshidaide 〜次第でdepending on270
PHShidaini 次第にGradually, little by little010
GRshika しかbut, only、just2150
GRshikanai 〜しかないno alternative, no option but to...217-1
GRshikashi しかし (然し・併し)However, but45-1
GRshimatsuda 始末だUnfortunately, (it has become ~)140
GRshimau しまう (仕舞う・終う・了う)Vte, (Definitely, completely [often to ones regret] do V)330
GRshould Things that should be a certain wayThings that should be a certain way (はず、べき、べく、べからず)300
GRshould do/better to/ought to/have to するべき・ほうが良い・しなければならないyou should300
GRsigns Showing signs of somethingShowing signs of something (〜がる、ばかり、〜めく)300
GRsimilar 類似Various ways to express similarity and hearsay (よう、〜みたい、〜そう、〜そうだ、〜らしい、〜っぽい)300
GRsimultaneous-actions-group ついでに・を契機に・をきっかけにwhile doing A, do B26-1
GRsince/because-group から・のでbecause2100
GRsobakara そばから, 傍からas soon as, right after120
GRsobireru 〜そびれるFail to ~120
PHsoc-closings 終わるclosing a social email6120
PHsoc-invite 招待casual invitation to party6140
PHsomaru 染まるto dye020
GRSonomama no kotoba そのままの言葉Set expressions or phrases350
PHsonoue 其の上moreover; besides0170
GRsorede それでand then, after that; Due to that2220
GRsorega 其れがDespite that210
GRSorekkiri それっきりSince, since then130
GRsoremadeda 〜それまでだConveys the idea that if something occurs, then a bad end is reached.100
PHsoreni それにmoreover, and what's more010
GRsou そうVm, Looks like380
GRsou-2 そうI hear that360
GRsoudan 相談Making requests (〜ください、〜ちょうだい、〜なさい、command form)215-2
PHsoumonai そうもない no way; impossible0150
PHsousuruto そうするとThat means, If that's the case, etc020
PHspecialexp -Special Expressions000
PHspecification 仕様we want 10 of the red ones5210
PHstart -An introduction to Tae Kim's guide to Japanese grammar000
PHstem + dasu stem + 出すBegin to ~020
PHsubclause -Subordinate Clauses000
GRsueni 〜末にin the end, result212-1
GRsugiru すぎるtoo; too much; excessively3110
GRsukini 隙にWhile 〜 To take advantage of a moment of time to do something (there is an element of cunning in its meaning)140
GRsukoshi 少しa bit...4110
PHsukoshimo.....nai 少しも〜ないnot at all040
GRsuru するto do (irregular verb)430
PHsuru hitsuyou ga する必要が ( するひつようが )Things that must be done (or not)000
PHsurunaru -Using する and なる with the に particle (〜[のよう]になる/する)000
GRtabi, tabi ni たび、たびにeach time, every time whenever200
GRtabi, tabini たび、たびにeach time, every time, whenever270
GRtadadesae 唯でさえTo add to, something alone is normally enough140
GRtada~nominarazu ただ〜のみならずNot only ~ (but also ~); not only that. Used in comparison, juxtaposition, and analogy - literary language. Formal, written.130
GRtai たいVm, wanting to do ___340
GRtakadaka たかだか (高高)At most13-1
PHtakke ~たっけwas it~; did you say~0140
GRtamaranai たまらない(1) intolerable, unbearable, unendurable, (2) cannot help (doing), cannot but do, anxious to do, (3) tremendous, out of this world, irresistible.270
GRtame In order to, because of, for370
GRtamonoda たものだused to240
GRtara たらif, when (verb form)3150
GRtari suru form たり する formdoing things like V+ing390
GRtaritomo たりともEven only / Even merely / Even just160
GRtatoe-temo たとえeven if2120
GRtatokoro た形ところjust as I'd, right at the moment when I'd214-1
GRtatokorode た形ところでeven if you do... it will not result to..28-1
GRtatotan たとたんSee [とたん(に)]250
GRtatsumoride た形 積もりでinstead of (hypothetical action)26-1
GRte 〜て([verb]-te, connects two sentences)3100
GRTe Form of Verbs て形An easy method to conjugating verbs into te form.400
GRtearu て形+ある (て在る・て有る)Vte something has been purposely put into a state340
PHtechnical 技術について5100
GRteha 〜てはVte, (te-form verb + contrastative ha wa)230
GRtehaikenai て形+はいけない (ては行け無い)you shouldn't, one should not314-1
GRtehairarenai / tebakarihairarenai 〜てはいられない・〜てばかりはいられないcan't / can't afford 〜(doing something)120
GRtehajimete て初めてnot until, only after180
GRteirai て以来since; ever since; from here on280
GRteiru て形+いる (て居る)Vte (Continuing states, experience, repetative events)/ doing currently320
GRtekaradenaito; tekaradenakereba て形からでないと; て形からでなければNot Until 〜;If I don't 〜, I can't 〜; I can't 〜 unless I 〜.29-1
GRtekartoiumono てからというものEver Since s.t. changed120
PHtekoso 〜てこそnot until, only after020
GRtekuru て形+くる (て来る)Vte go, do something, and return340
GRtemiru て形+みる (て見る)to try (out)340
GRtenaranai てならないCannot help -ing; Unbearably; Irresistibly210-2
GRtendency TendenciesTendencies (〜がち、〜つつ、きらいがある)300
PHteshimaimashita 〜てしまいました~tesimaimasita0140
GRteshimau て形+しまう (て仕舞う・て終う・て了う)wind up ____ing, end up ___ing, finish ____ing313-1
GRteshouganai; tetamaranai てしょうがない; てたまらないCan't help but 〜; Extremely 〜; Very 〜2100
GRtetamaranai てたまらないbe dying to do something, to feel X strongly, can't help it...222-1
GRteyagaru てやがるEmphasize a disliking of the action taken.230
PHthanks お礼thanks for your help51130
PHtime 時間に関してschedule, dates, deadlines590
PHtimeaction2 -Expressing time-specific actions000
GRto 〜と(on when) doing, if390
GRto douyou と同様the same way as, as well as310
GRtoaimatte と相まってCoupled with, together with140
GRtoareba 〜とあれば"if it happens to be" • since it is a special condition130
GRtoatte とあってBecause ~; ~ as expected; because ~, naturally ~; Introduces an expected reason for some circumstance that is different from the usual situation.140
GRtobakarini とばかりにas if; as if ~ were convinced that; as if ~ believed that; as if ~ decided that150
GRtodoujini と同時にand at the same time212-1
GRtohaie とはいえAlthough it is said that, even though it is said, admitting that, that being said, however, nevertheless190
GRtohakagiranai とは限らないnot always, not necessarily219-1
PHtoieba と言えばspeaking of ~0130
GRtoiedomo といえどもeven, although, though, even though150
GRtoii~toii 〜といい〜といいIn terms of both ~ and ~; in terms of ~ as well as ~; from the perspective of both ~ and ~140
GRtoittara といったらExpress admiration/horror; eg, how +adjective, so+adjective290
GRtoittemo といってもbut215-1
GRtoiukotoda ということだit must mean, it boils down to29-1
GRtoiukotodesune ということですね (と云う事ですね)your message is that ...310
GRtoiumono というものthat thing called217-1
GRtoiumonodehanai; toiumonodemonai というものではない; というものでもないDoesn't mean that; It's not (true) that; Not necessarily250
GRtoiuto と言うとwhen you talk of, speaking of, when you say240
GRtoiuyori というよりrather, more than280
GRtoiwanbakarini と言わんばかりにas if to say170
GRtoka とかIt seems that; I heard that24-1
GRtoki 〜時when331
PHtokitara ときたらwhen it comes to~ (neg. sense)020
GRtokoro ところplace, time, occasion350
GRtokoro de ところで (所で・処で)by the way360
GRtokoroni, tokorohe, tokorowo ところに、ところへ、ところを(Just) when210-1
GRtokorowo ところをdespite a certain time / despite a certain situation130
GRtomokagiranai とも限らないthere's a chance that, it could be that230
GRtomokaku 兎も角anyhow; anyway; somehow or other; generally speaking; in any case28-1
GRtomonaku;tomonashini 〜ともなく,〜ともななしにWithout really planning to, ~ A phrase indicating that the subject does s.t. without paying much attention or that when, where, to whom, etc. s.t. took place is unclear.1120
GRtomonaruto ともなるとWhen it comes to (special situation), Naturally, (X) follows130
GRtonikaku とにかくin any case, anyway190
PHtonokotoda とのことaccording to000
GRtoomoikiya と思いきやcontrary to my expectations, I expected ~but150
GRtoomou 意向形と思うI think I will (do)310-1
GRtoori 通りin that way2110
GRtoshitara, tosureba, tosuruto としたら、とすれば、とするとif one did; if one were to260
GRtoshitatokorode toshitatte nishitatokorode ~としたところで, ~としたって, ~にしたところでeven if, though150
GRtoshite としてas; in the capacity of2350
PHtoshite2 としてtry to030
GRtoshiteha としてはfor250
GRtoshitemo 〜としてもeven if; assuming28-1
PHtossani とっさにTo reflexively react; an unconscious movement.020
GRtosuru とするassume, regard X as ~ , suppose170
GRtotan(ni) 途端(に)as soon as, the instant250
GRtotemo ~ nai とても〜ないCan`t possibly320
GRtotomoni と共にas well as; with; along with; at the same time; when; as; while310-1
PHtotsutaeteitadakemasenka と伝えていただけませんかPolitely asking someone to convey a message.010
GRtoutei 到底(can't) possibly / very much280
PHtowakagiranai とは限りませんit's not necessarily the case that, it does not mean that000
GRtowazu 問わずregardless of230
PHtranstype -Transitive and Intransitive Verbs000
PHtry -Trying something out or attempting to do something (〜てみる、volitional+とする)000
GRtsui ついwithout thinking, despite myself280
GRtsuideni ついでにwhile doing A, I had a chance to do B, since doing A anyway, do B2110
GRtsumori つもり (積もり・積り)One's intention; conviction; belief416-1
GRtsumoridatta 積もりだったI had the intention to do (but I didn't)39-1
GRtsurete, nitsure つれて、につれmore....more230
GRtsutsu つつVm, -ing2180
GRtsutsuaru つつあるVm, middle of doing...、continues to226-1
GRtsuujite 通じてthrough, by215-1
GRtsuzukeru 続けるkeep on doing ...37-1
GRtsu~tsu 〜つ〜つUsed to express passive and active actions happening at once.190
GRtte って...said; no matter what27-1
PHtte ba ってばemphasize speakers emotion/desire/will040
GRuchini うちにwhile; during; as210-1
GRuchini-2 うちにbefore ... (something bad happens); while ... still (being OK), while (state still continue) and before the state is finished27-1
GRuchini-3 うちにAn unforseen change that occured during a described time frame.24-1
GRuede 上でupon, after213-1
GRueha 上はsince when23-1
GRueni 上にmoreover; what's more; additionally; not only214-1
GRukkari うっかりcarelessly, without thinking1100
PHunintended -Things that happen unintentionally (〜てしまう、〜ちゃう/〜じゃう)000
GRunrelated-group を問わず・にかかわらず・もかまわずignoring, leaving aside200
GRuru 得るable to do270
PHVaguely なんとなくVaguely, somehow020
GRVerb Groups [in progress]Ichidan verbs430
GRVerb Groups I -Introduction to Verb Conjugation400
GRverb stem + dasu/dashita ~出すbegin/start...360
GRverb stem + tai 〜たいI want to (verb)430
PHverbs -Verb Basics000
GRviewpoint-group にとって・として・の上で・からいうと・から見るとfrom the point of view, based on210
GRwa 〜わ(adds emphasis) [female]33-1
GRwake meaning; reason; circumstances3120
GRwakeda 〜わけだof course, expected result250
GRwakedehanai わけではないIt does not (necessarily) mean that 〜; I don't mean that 〜; It is not (true) that 〜; It is not the case that 〜2180
GRwakeganai, wakehanai わけがない、わけはないThere is no reason (as to) why 〜; It is impossible (for) 〜; cannot280
GRwakeniha ikanai わけには いかないcannot; have no other choice but211-1
GRwarini わりにconsidering ..., for ...2140
GRwarini(wa) 割りに(は)comparatively; very...100
GRwhen it comes?? かけるとwhen it comes? (200
GRwo 〜を'object marker' (also shown as 'o') 目的480
GRwo kagiri ni 〜を限りにwith 〜, some continuing activity will end (or a prohibition on an activity will start)130
GRwo kinjienai を禁じを得無いcan't help feeling150
GRwo megutte 〜をめぐってsurrounding, concerning, about [/ focusing on / in connection with]270
GRwo oite 〜をおいて (を措いて)apart from/leaving aside130
PHwo tooshite を通してthrough, by use of, by means of060
GRwo-2 〜をarea passed through (通過点)340
GRwo-3 〜を(marks point of departure) 出発点340
GRwo/wa nuki ni shite 〜をぬきにして・はぬきにしてwithout, leaving out24-1
GRwochuushinni を中心にcenter on, in the middle of291
GRwohajime をはじめnot only, but also starting with27-2
GRwokiita を聞いたI heard3110
GRwokomete を込めて[Verb Phrase] with all your [Noun Phrase]2100
GRwomegutte をめぐってregarding2120
GRwomonotomosezuni 〜をものともせずにIn the face of, in defiance of, in spite of18-1
GRwomotoni をもとにon basis of28-1
GRwomotonishite をもとにしてbased on240
GRwomotte1 〜をもって (を以て)at (time / momen)130
GRwomotte2 〜をもって (を以て)By means of, via, through - method by which you do / achieve something140
GRwotowazu を問わずregardles (of)280
GRwoyosoni 〜をよそに (を余所に)Without consideration for... / Despite... / Without thinking...140
PHwrapup4 -Wrapping up section 4 and more gobi000
PHwritingsys The Japanese Writing System000
PHya ina ya や否やAs soon as, had hardly... when030
GRyainaya や否やjust as soon as1150
GRyamanai やまない (止ま無い・已ま無い)not to stop130
GRyamuwoenai やむをえない (已むを得無い)no other way to do something しかたがない120
GRyappari, yahari やっぱり(やはり)As I thought; after all2210
GRyara-yara 〜やら〜やらparticle denoting uncertainty or a listing used for both words and clauses26-1
GRyasui やすいeasy to V38-1
PHyasuraka 安らかpeaceful, restful000
GRyatto やっとfinally33-1
GRyo 〜よ! (exclamation mark, add emphasis, denote new information being imparted)340
GRyomoya よもやsurely not230
GRyori よりthan, rather than370
GRyori-2 よりmore ____330
PHyori-3 よりfrom010
GRyorimosarani よりもさらにmore than that; more than210
GRyotei 予定be planning to do~330
GRyou ようappearance, looks, seems340
GRyoudehanaika 意向形ではないかwhy don't we28-1
GRyoudehanaika-2 ようではないかdoesn't it seem ~ ?230
GRyouganai 〜ようがないno way to2110
GRyoumonai ようもないthere's no way217-1
GRyounakigasuru ような気がするIt's like it could be...270
PHyouni ようにin order to090
GRyouni-2 ようにbecame250
GRyouni-suru ようにするV, try to214-1
GRyouni-te ように〜てV, asking someone to ask someone else to do something (indirect order)210-1
GRyouniiu ように言うV, To say to (do something)350
GRyounimonai ようにも〜ないeven though ~ try / want to ~; although ~ be thinking of doing; A conjunctive phrase that indicates concession: "even though s.o. tries to do s.t., he/she cannot do it for some reason"150
GRyouninaru ようになるIndicates a change which has taken place or will take place.360
GRyoutosuru 〜ようとするTry to do something, but the nuance is that it was unsuccessful.330
GRyoutosuru, part II 〜おうとするとA voluntary action stopped just before being completed330
GRyueni 故に, 故のDue to, therefore (formal, written)130
GRZ Mish-mosh of Level I and Level II Subjects Z Mish-mosh of Level I and Level II SubjectsZ Mish-mosh of Level I and Level II Subjects400
GRzaruwoenai ざるをえないcan't avoid doing x2160
GRzemeni 攻めにOverwhelmingly130
GRzu, zuni 〜ずWithout (doing)210-1
GRzukume 〜尽くめFull of / A lot of170
GRzumogana ~ず もがなVn, As well not to ~130
GRzuni ずにwithout320
GRzunihairarenai 〜ずにはいられないcannot help217-1
PH~houdai 〜放題As you like030
PH~naki ~なき~less, without010
PH~naosu ~直すto do something again, hoping to improve it000
PH~nimotoduite ~に基づいてbased on~000
PH~temoiidesuka ~てもいいですかdo you mind if~0140
GR~tokoro (da) 〜ところ(だ) (所だ・処だ)I am about to / I was about to 360