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Grammar/Categories including

typeENJPmeaninggroup# ex.checked
PH(short present) + to (ii desu ne / iin desu ga) と いいですね / いいんですがyou can use the present tense short form + (to ii desu ne) to hope something good happens for others. If you hope for your own good, use (to iin desu ga). if the action is under your control, you should first change the verb to potential form.000
PH-nakattarou probable negative plain form 〜なかったろうProbable negative plain verbform. As in, "he probably did not go." Same meaning as -nandarou 〜なんだろう.000
PHabbreviations 略語abbreviations046-1
PHaddress Addressing Peopleaddressing yourself and others in conversation000
PHadgobi -Using Adverbs and Gobi000
PHadjectives 形容詞Adjectives000
PHageku 挙げ句in the end, afterall014-1
PHamount -Expressing various degrees of amounts000
PHapologies 謝罪sorry!0130
PHBaka 馬鹿stupid person010
PHbakari ばかりhave just done something; have just finished doing something’030
PHbasicgram -Basic Grammatical Structures000
PHbecome, became, becoming youninaruindicates a change which has taken place or will take place020
PHburi ~ぶりfirst time in ~030
PHcatalog カタログhere is our catalog0340
PHcertainty -Expressing various levels of certainty (かもしれない、でしょう、だろう)000
PHcompare -Using 方 and よる for comparisons and other functions (より、の方、stem+方、によって、によると)000
PHcompound -Compound Sentences000
PHconditional -Conditional Expressions020
PHcopula -Declaring something is so and so using 「だ」000
PHdakarakoso だからこそ(just) because of 040
PHdakaratoitte だからといって However.. / It doesn't follow that .../ But it doesn't mean that..010
PHdays days of the month000
PHdearouga であろうがA or B doesn't matter, at least I want C020
PHdekirudake できるだけas soon/early as possible060
PHdesire -Desire and Suggestions000
PHdirections 行き方how to get give directions010
PHdochirakatoieba どちらかといえばIf I had to say...030
PHdouzo どうぞgo ahead; be my guest0130
PHeasyhard -Saying something is easy or difficult to do (〜やすい、〜にくい)000
PHenduring -Other uses of the te-form (〜ている、〜てある、〜ておく、〜ていく、〜てくる)000
PHessential -Grammar you must know000
PHeven -Expressing the minimum expectation000
PHfavor, favour 授受Giving and Receiving (あげる、やる、くれる、もらう)000
PHfeedback feedbackfeedback000
PHflashFB feedback on the flash quiz000
PHflashQuiz 文法クイズFlash Grammar Quiz000
PHformal -Formal Expressions (である、ではない)000
PHgenericnoun -Special expressions with generic nouns (こと、ところ、もの)000
PHgokensonwo ご謙遜をdon't be modest0140
PHGokuryuuha ごくりゅうはHell's Dragon000
PHgomottomo ごもっともappropriate, absolutely right. Response to opinions one agrees with0170
PHgosinpainaku ご心配なくdo not worry0140
PHGroup 1 Verb Exceptions 五段動詞ー特例A list of -eru and -iru verbs that conjugate as Group 1080
PHha-3 (In mathematics), roughly "is/equals"090
PHhacchakeru はっちゃけるTo party, unwind and have a good time in order to forget stresses and problems000
PHhajimeta 読み始めたstarted to000
PHhiitewa 〜ひいてはwhich in turn010
PHhitotsutottemo ひとつとってもOne example being, for example020
PHhontoni 本当にreally; truly000
PHikani-temo いかに〜てもno matter how020
PHikura (person) demo (negative sentence) No matter how (adj) (person) is, (I wouldn't go so far as to/he wouldn't)...000
PHimada 未だyet / as yet / so far/ not yet020
PHimadeha 今では"(by) now"; "nowadays"040
PHIn some manner DokotonakuVaguely; in some manner020
PHindex -Tae Kim's Guide to Japanese Grammar000
PHis, am, are da / desuis, am, are0890
PHittai 一体why, who, what on earth~0140
PHjikangatatsu 時間がたつpassing of time; 0120
PHjuu/chuu じゅう/ちゅうthroughout, through, during all0110
PHkai 〜かい? (for casual questions)020
PHkananika か何かor something like that0140
PHKanji Picture Dictionary 漢英字典A flash kanji dictionary tool 010
PHkarashite- 2 からしてSince; because; Consequently020
PHkatakana カタカナ-020
PHkeigo-1 敬語basic keigo000
PHkoto ni suru ことにする(I/you/he/she/we/they) has/have decided that...010
PHkudasaimasenka 下さいませんかkudaisamasenka0140
PHLinks リンク集Related cool sites000
PHmanten 満点Full score000
PHmashite ya ましてやLet alone, still, much less060
PHmoshimoshi もしもしhello(on the phone)0140
PHmosikasite もしかしてis it possible0160
PHmotoi もといis wrong, rather010
PHmune concerning ... , regarding ... , that ... 010
PHnaiyouni ないようにto avoid0140
PHnakerebanaranai なければならないmust0150
PHnakutemosumu なくてもすむDon't have to 〜 (and are happy because of it)020
PHnamini 並みに, to the same degree as010
PHnarau to learn with/ from someone000
PHnarubeku なるべくas much, fast~ as possible05-2
PHnazenara なぜならbecause: a reason for or to do (x). 000
PHnegverb -Negative Verbs000
PHnegverb2 -More negative verbs (ないで、ず、〜ん、ぬ)000
PHnewSiteFB 新規サイトコメントを教えて!-000
PHnidoto 二度とnever again0150
PHnochange -Leaving something the way it is (まま、っぱなし)000
PHnonasa のなさlack of something010
PHnoni-3 のにwish020
PHnotation 文法形grammar types060
PHnoyou の様seems like; looks like0140
PHnumbers -Numbers and Counting000
PHoldSiteFB フィードバックPlease offer feedback on the new site (design, functionality, etc.)000
PHparticles -Introduction to Particles (は、も、が)000
PHparticles2 -Particles used with verbs (を、に、へ、で)000
PHparticles3 -Noun-related Particles (と、や、とか、の)010
PHpastverb -Past Tense000
PHpotential -Potential Form000
PHpretending わざとらしいfake, pretending 030
PHquestion -The Question Marker (か)000
PHquotation -Performing an action on a subordinate clause (と、って)000
PHQ~demo Q~でもQuestion word + demo = Question word + ever. (Whenever, wherever, whatever, whoever)010
PHreasoning -Hypothesizing and Concluding (わけ、〜とする)000
PHryuu 龒・龍・竜dragon000
PHSa 〜さA casual particle with a variety of meanings but generally used when one is trying to connect related ideas on the spot or set the background for an explanation or story000
PHsamonaito さもないとor else, otherwise0140
PHSaya さやSheath000
PHseneba naranai せねばならないHave to, feel obliged to060
PHShidaini 次第にGradually, little by little010
PHsomaru 染まるto dye020
PHsonoue 其の上moreover; besides0170
PHsoreni それにmoreover, and what's more010
PHsoumonai そうもない no way; impossible0150
PHsousuruto そうするとThat means, If that's the case, etc020
PHspecialexp -Special Expressions000
PHstart -An introduction to Tae Kim's guide to Japanese grammar000
PHstem + dasu stem + 出すBegin to ~020
PHsubclause -Subordinate Clauses000
PHsukoshimo.....nai 少しも〜ないnot at all040
PHsuru hitsuyou ga する必要が ( するひつようが )Things that must be done (or not)000
PHsurunaru -Using する and なる with the に particle (〜[のよう]になる/する)000
PHtakke ~たっけwas it~; did you say~0140
PHteshimaimashita 〜てしまいました~tesimaimasita0140
PHtimeaction2 -Expressing time-specific actions000
PHtoiunoni というのにAlthough; Despite000
PHtokitara ときたらwhen it comes to~ (neg. sense)020
PHtonokotoda とのことaccording to000
PHtoshite2 としてtry to030
PHtossani とっさにTo reflexively react; an unconscious movement.020
PHtotsutaeteitadakemasenka と伝えていただけませんかPolitely asking someone to convey a message.010
PHtowakagiranai とは限りませんit's not necessarily the case that, it does not mean that000
PHtranstype -Transitive and Intransitive Verbs000
PHtry -Trying something out or attempting to do something (〜てみる、volitional+とする)000
PHtte ba ってばemphasize speakers emotion/desire/will040
PHunintended -Things that happen unintentionally (〜てしまう、〜ちゃう/〜じゃう)000
PHVaguely なんとなくVaguely, somehow020
PHverbs -Verb Basics000
PHwo tooshite を通してthrough, by use of, by means of060
PHwrapup4 -Wrapping up section 4 and more gobi000
PHwritingsys The Japanese Writing System000
PHya ina ya や否やAs soon as, had hardly... when030
PHyasuraka 安らかpeaceful, restful000
PHyokumo~monoda よくも〜ものだHow the hell is it possible, that ...?010
PHyori-3 よりfrom010
PHyouni ようにin order to090
PH~houdai 〜放題As you like030
PH~naki ~なき~less, without010
PH~naosu ~直すto do something again, hoping to improve it030
PH~nimotoduite ~に基づいてbased on~000
PH~temoiidesuka ~てもいいですかdo you mind if~0140
GR(de)sura 〜(で)すらjust / even if1210
GR(yo)uga,(yo)uto (よ)うが, (よ)うと ようが ようと"even if", "no matter what" (people say etc.), strong expression that contains the idea of concession150
GR(yo)uto~mai, (yo)uga~mai (よ)うと〜まい, (よ)うが〜まい, ようと〜まい, ようRegardless of whether or not140
GRarebakoso あればこそparticularly thanks to17-1
GRarumajiki あるまじきIt's not proper130
GRatteno あってのThanks to (various things), (outcome)170
GRbakarini ばかりにbecause (of a negative thing); simply because; simply on account of170
GRbekarazaru 〜べからざるmust not; cannot150
GRbeku 〜べくFor the purpose of; To ____, In order to150
GRbuchouhou 不調法 or 無調法A rudeness or blunder, carelessness120
GRclose_actions Advanced proximity of actionsAdvanced proximity of actions (が早いか、や否や、そばから)100
GRdani 〜だにEven; just112-1
GRdeare 〜であれNo matter what; Even if; No matter how180
GRdeare~deare 〜であれ〜であれWhether X or Y; A structure that means "no matter which one is the case"160
GRdehaarumaishi ではあるまいし"It's not as if" giving a reason why something should not be how it is130
GRdenakute-nandarou 〜でなくてなんだろうIf thats not ... I don't know what is130
GRdenakuteha でなくてはif not.. then noone180
GRdonna どんなWhatever; whoever, etc.170
GRdoumo どうもapparently, naturally17-1
GRdouyara どうやらit seems, apparently, somehow1140
GRevaluation-group わりに・にしては・向きにfor150
GRfuto ふとsuddenly, by coincidence124-1
GRgachi がちtend to1190
GRgahayaika 〜が早いか as soon as19-1
GRgasaigo 〜が最後If s.o. does s.t for even a moment, the following result will necessarily occur • Once someone starts something, the person can’t stop it160
GRgatera がてらwhile doing something and taking advantage of that opportunity to do something else14-1
GRgotoki,gotoku,gotoshi ごとき, ごとく, ごとしLike, As if; resembelence, analogy, similarity1160
GRhaiumademonaku は言うまでもなくgoes without saying/not to mention1210
GRhakadoru はかどる (捗る)Make progress140
GRhaoroka 〜は愚か・〜は疎かlet alone B; not to mention; of course A but also B; 1110
GRhatashite 果たしてreally, as was expected170
GRhitori-dakedenaku,hitori-nominarazu ひとり〜だけでなく, ひとり〜のみならずnot only (A) but also (B)170
GRikan いかん (如何)based on116-1
GRikanaru-demo いかなる〜でも (如何なる〜でも)whatever ~160
GRikanimo いかにもseems (but is not); indeed1190
GRikanniyorazu いかんによらずwithout regard to140
GRImada ni 未だにStill, yet150
GRimagoroninatte 今ごろになって ~もit's already too late170
GRimakaraomoeba 今から思えばLooking back on it now140
GRimasara-tatokorode 今さら〜たところでit's already too late, It's no use doing s.t. now150
GRirai 依頼Request or commission110
GRirarenai 居られないcannot exist, not possible, can't afford to13-1
GRitadaku 頂くto receive (polite)150
GRitasu 致すto do (humble)120
GRkaketa かけたstarted but not finished1130
GRkanete 兼ねてcombine with151
GRkanogotoku かのごとくas if130
GRKansai Dialect 関西弁Kansai Dialect100
GRkarasuruto-2 からするとfrom (the point of view)110-2
GRkaroujite 辛うじてbarely180
GRkatagata かたがた(旁)at the same time, incidentally;doing something while fulfilling different purposes at the same time130
GRkatawara かたわらbesides doing a main thing, one is also involved in another activities.17-1
GRkatawara 〜かたわら (傍ら)not only, ...also (This expression is only used in writing)17-1
GRkawakirini かわきりに, 皮切りにbeginning of, starting with160
GRkigatsuita 気が付いたI realized14-1
GRkiraigaaru きらいがあるthere is a tendency for ~ to happen (and it is somewhat bad and/or a cause for concern)130
GRkiwamarinai/ kiwamaru 極まりない/ 極まるunlimited, extremely, boundlessly13-1
GRkoreijyou-ba これ以上〜ばif ~ any more than this140
GRkotonashini ことなしにIn examples such as "Without A, I can't do B" where, without Action A, there is no possibility of B130
GRkototote こととてbecause/since - explains the cause or gives a reason for 160
GRkousyou 交渉getting the right terms1105-1
GRmadashimo まだしもwould be much better, would be acceptable140
GRmademonai までもないNo need to1110
GRmajiki 〜まじきnot likely130
GRmamire まみれ (塗れ)covered in st (名詞+に+まみれる); (名詞+まみれ)160
GRmasaka まさかincredible!150
GRmasakano まさかの〜If unexpectedly there is anything , 〜170
GRmashite ~ hazuganai まして〜はずがないit is even more unlikely that 〜120
GRmeku めくlike / ish130
GRmiseru みせるam determined to150
GRmonowo ものをBut...! / But If (you) had just... / But (I) could have...170
GRmosarukotonagara もさることながら (も然る事乍ら)is (such) but (____) is also190
GRnagaramo ながらもNotwithstanding, even while, even though, as she was1110
GRnagarani ながらにsince (A) started, it has been continuously in the same state1100
GRnaimademo ないまでもexpressing the speaker's feeling that although an ideal action or state isn't possible, at least the next best action or stat is or should be available140
GRnakushite なくしてIf it wasn't for...160
GRnaradeha ならではunless / impossible if it's not / only possible with/by/at/etc / very difficult by any other~,1100
GRnaraizashirazu ならいざ知らずI'm not sure if it is [possible/so] but...130
GRnaratomokaku ならともかくI'm not sure if it is [possible/so] but...120
GRnari なりAs soon as160
GRnari2 なりexpresses continuing state120
GRnarini なりにin one's own way, one's own style1160
GRnari~nari 〜なり〜なりeither.... or....160
GRnashini なしにwithout (the thing "without" is s.t. that should naturally have been there)180
GRni ataranai に あたらないno need to do so130
GRni koshita koto ha nai ga 〜に越したことは無いがNormally Its better to (You can never have too much)150
GRniatte にあってbeing in/due to/suited to1130
GRnihikikae にひきかえin sharp contrast with; compared to180
GRniitaru に至るleads to, all the way to, as far as1110
GRniitatte に至ってOnce [things have] reached the point at which...; (Only) now that it has come to this...150
GRnikakawaru に関わるBrings about an effect on; relates to; a matter of1120
GRnikatakunai 〜に難くないnot hard to ...(名詞+にかたくない/ Vる+にかたくない)120
GRnikurabete 〜に比べてcompared to1130
GRnimomashite にもましてabove everything; more than before180
GRnishite 〜にしてonly; because of that14-2
GRnisokushite に即してin line with, in keeping with1150
GRnisoutousuru に相当するequivalent1130
GRnitaenai1 〜にたえないcannot stand; cannot do; no value to170
GRnitaenai2 〜堪えないEmphasizing a strong emotional reaction either good or bad130
GRnitaeru 〜にたえるhas value; it is worth doing140
GRniyoruto によるとaccording to1110
GRniyotte によってby; according to; due to; owing to; due to1120
GRnoitari 〜の至りcompletely; utmost150
GRnokiwami の極みthe utmost170
GRocha wo nigosu お茶を濁すto avoid giving a direct answer100
GRothergrammar Some Other GrammarSome Other Grammar (思いきや、がてら、あげく)100
GRppanashi 〜っぱなし (〜っ放し)Keep ~ing / To leave ~140
GRrokuni ろくに〜ない(not) much, barely140
GRsanagara さながらJust like190
GRsasuga さすが (流石)as expected, after all160
GRseiippai 精一杯as hard as possible140
GRseizei せいぜい (精精)my utmost, at most112-1
GRSeme ni (or Noun-Zeme ni) 攻めにOverwhelmingly130
GRsemete せめてat least, at most a small thing110-2
GRsengatame せんがためIn order to do140
GRshimatsuda 始末だUnfortunately, (it has become ~)140
GRsobakara そばから, 傍からas soon as, right after120
GRsobireru 〜そびれるFail to ~120
GRSorekkiri それっきりSince, since then130
GRsoremadeda 〜それまでだConveys the idea that if something occurs, then a bad end is reached.150
GRsukini 隙にWhile 〜 To take advantage of a moment of time to do something (there is an element of cunning in its meaning)140
GRtadadesae 唯でさえTo add to, something alone is normally enough140
GRtada~nominarazu ただ〜のみならずNot only ~ (but also ~); not only that. Used in comparison, juxtaposition, and analogy - literary language. Formal, written.130
GRtakadaka たかだか (高高)At most13-1
GRtaritomo たりともEven only / Even merely / Even just160
GRtehairarenai / tebakarihairarenai 〜てはいられない・〜てばかりはいられないcan't / can't afford 〜(doing something)120
GRtehajimete て初めてnot until, only after180
GRtekaratoiumono てからというものEver Since s.t. changed120
GRtoaimatte と相まってCoupled with, together with140
GRtoareba 〜とあれば"if it happens to be" • since it is a special condition130
GRtoatte とあってBecause ~; ~ as expected; because ~, naturally ~; Introduces an expected reason for some circumstance that is different from the usual situation.140
GRtohaie とはいえAlthough it is said that, even though it is said, admitting that, that being said, however, nevertheless190
GRtoiedomo といえどもeven, although, though, even though150
GRtoii~toii 〜といい〜といいIn terms of both ~ and ~; in terms of ~ as well as ~; from the perspective of both ~ and ~140
GRtoittaranai と言ったらないThere's no way to express...120
GRtoiwanbakarini と言わんばかりにas if to say170
GRtokorowo ところをdespite a certain time / despite a certain situation130
GRtomonaku;tomonashini 〜ともなく,〜ともななしにWithout really planning to, ~ A phrase indicating that the subject does s.t. without paying much attention or that when, where, to whom, etc. s.t. took place is unclear.1120
GRtomonaruto ともなるとWhen it comes to (special situation), Naturally, (X) follows130
GRtonikaku とにかくin any case, anyway190
GRtoomoikiya と思いきや"thought so, but" OR, "would have thought so/imagined, but didn't"150
GRtoshitatokorode toshitatte nishitatokorode ~としたところで, ~としたって, ~にしたところでeven if, though150
GRtosuru とするassume, regard X as ~ , suppose170
GRtsu~tsu 〜つ〜つUsed to express passive and active actions happening at once.190
GRukkari うっかりcarelessly, without thinking1100
GRwarini(wa) 割りに(は)comparatively; very...100
GRwo kagiri ni 〜を限りにwith 〜, some continuing activity will end (or a prohibition on an activity will start)130
GRwo kinjienai を禁じ得無いcan't help feeling150
GRwo oite 〜をおいて (を措いて)apart from/leaving aside160
GRwomonotomosezuni 〜をものともせずにIn the face of, in defiance of, in spite of18-1
GRwomotte1 〜をもって (を以て)at (time / moment)130
GRwomotte2 〜をもって (を以て)By means of, via, through - method by which you do / achieve something140
GRwoyosoni 〜をよそに (を余所に)Without consideration for... / Despite... / Without thinking...140
GRyainaya や否やjust as soon as1150
GRyamanai やまない (止ま無い・已ま無い)not to stop130
GRyamuwoenai やむをえない (已むを得無い)no other way to do something しかたがない120
GRyasakini 矢先にJust as one is about to start doing something120
GRyounimonai ようにも〜ないeven though ~ try / want to ~; although ~ be thinking of doing; A conjunctive phrase that indicates concession: "even though s.o. tries to do s.t., he/she cannot do it for some reason"150
GRyueni 故に, 故のDue to, therefore (formal, written)130
GRzukume 〜尽くめFull of / A lot of170
GRzumogana ~ず もがなVn, As well not to ~130
GR~KosoSuRe [~nai/arimasen] Only [A] is ever happens, NEVER [B].100
GRamari 余りnot much, too much2210
GRAmari 2 あまり〜(動詞)〜ないNot really200
GRamarino ~ ni あまりの〜にDue to a condition/state being in excess, a result occurs.230
GRarieru ありうる, ありえる (有り得る)To be possible, to be conceivable24-1
GRariuru 有り得るto be possible, to be likely2120
GRat-the-time-group そのときat the time21-1
GRbakarika ばかりかnot just, but also2130
GRbasis-of-action-group ように・とおりに・を中心に・に沿って・をもとにしてas, along with, like200
GRba~hodo 条件形〜ほどthe more +V(+A), the more ...2220
GRbekarazu 〜べからずmust not210-1
GRbekida べきだV, ought to, must2180
GRbonyari ぼんやりabsent-minded(ly); blank(ly)230
GRdake だけ1) just, only, simply, merely; 2) as much as X wants/like/can (whatever, anything)241-1
GRdakeatte だけあってbecause, as expected (used for positive things)2100
GRdakeni だけにas expected, after all, since, for290
GRdakeno 〜だけのAs much as; As fast as; To the extent of.2130
GRdakenokotohaaru だけのことはあるis surely because 〜; not surprising that 〜; It was worth 〜260
GRdarake だらけcovered with; littered with; infested with,full of220-1
GRDarake, mimare, sugume だらけ、まみれ、ずくめCovered by something210
GRdearou to であろうとNo matter what; Even if; No matter how240
GRdepend-correspond-group によって・次第で・いかんでdepending on, according to200
GRdetamaranai/tetamaranai 〜でたまらない・〜てたまらないso...that one can`t stand it; unbearably;extremely260
GRdokorodehanai, dokorodehanaku どころではない、どころではなくnot at all; far from; anything but; out of the question223-1
GRdokoroka どころかfar from A, in fact B; not just; even2350
GReru 得るto get, to win, to be possible2170
GRfeasibility Expressions of non-feasibilityFormal expressions of non-feasibility (〜ざるを得ない、やむを得ない、〜かねる)200
GRfuu Style26-1
GRfuuni という風にin that way280
GRgari がりVm, tend to, sensitive to230
GRgatai がたいVm, ~ difficult to2110
GRge Ab, seems (〜そう)290
GRGerrund form of Verb + naka de 進行形の動詞+中でOut of (Clause A) there is B, C, D etc etc200
GRGerrund form of Verb + nakade 進行形の動詞+中でOut of (Clause A) there is B, C, D etc etc200
GRgimi 気味Vm、N slight tendency toward, seems like, feels so..211-1
GRhamochiron はもちろんnot to mention; not only, but also;2190
GRhamotoyori はもとよりto begin with ... and also ...260
GRhanmen 〜反面on the other hand250
GRhasateoki 〜はさておきleaving aside, aside from281
GRhatomokaku はともかくleaving A aside, A is good, but B is another thing260
GRhitoiki 一息a short period of time270
GRhitoridemoooku 一人でも多くMore than one person200
GRhodo 〜程the more... the more... as along with, to the extent2170
GRhododa; hodono ほどだ; ほどのalmost/nearly; to the point of; like that; such as that28-1
GRhokanai ほかないnothing else to do but...290
GRichido-tara 一度〜たらonce220
GRijou 以上Vru, since; now that; once; as long as280
GRippou 一方on the other hand, on the other side, one-way2160
GRippouda 一方だincreasing tendency260
GRippoudeha 一方ではon the one hand . . . [can also mean "on the other hand"]260
GRitadakimasu 頂きますto receive26-1
GRitashimasu 致しますdo (humble)250
GRjamasuru 邪魔するto interrupt.260
GRjou point of view211-1
GRjoude 上でIn, On230
GRkadoukanouchini かどうかのうちにjust at the time when220
GRkaette かえってon the contrary2130
GRkagiri 限りas far as, as long as, until, unless2450
GRkagirida 限りだextremely210
GRkakaru 2 掛かる 2AT〜; ON〜210
GRkakeda かけだin the middle of something210
GRkakeda; kakeno; kakeru かけだ・かけの・かけるin the middle of; not yet finished V-ing270
GRkakeru 2 掛ける 2AT〜; TO〜200
GRkakeru to かけるとWhen it comes to210
GRkanaikanouchini か〜ないかのうちにNo sooner than; just as, at that instant280
GRkanarazushimo 必ずしも・・・でないnot necessarily2121
GRkanawanai かなわない(I/he/she/....) can not stand..... 240
GRkanenai かねないVm, capable of (a bad thing)223-1
GRkaneru 兼ねるhesitate to, cannot, hard to do215-1
GRkankei 関係relationship, relation (between/to)250
GRkanoyouda かのようだlike, as if (metaphor)213-1
GRkaraiuto からいうとfrom the standpoint of26-1
GRkarakoso-2 〜からこそespecially because (non-intuitive nuance)240
GRkaramiruto から見るとseen from the point of view290
GRkaraniha からにはso long as, since27-2
GRkarashite からして(1)Even; (2)Given, (Judging) From/By280
GRkarasuruto からするとfrom, you can judge, based on214-1
GRkaratoitte からといってjust because2201
GRkatoomouto かと思うとas soon as I noticed, almost immediately24-1
GRkatoomouto-2 かと思うとWhen I think it may240
GRkawarini かわりにin place of; instead of2150
GRkawarini-2 代わりにto make up for, in exchange for250
GRkawaru-group かわるinstead of / in place of200
GRkekka 結果as a result of2100
GRkigasuru 気がするto feel, realize226-1
GRkikkake きっかけtrigger224-1
GRkikkakeni きっかけにSince; Take the opportunity afforded by 〜 to 〜2100
GRkiri1 きりjust, only290
GRkiri2 きり just, for good, once and for all (keeps on same state)2120
GRkiru 切るverb-totally221-2
GRkiwamaru 〜極まるExtremely; The height of…; Knows no bounds. Always has a negative meaning.270
GRkke 〜っけ~?, like か2140
GRkkonai っこないVpm, impossible to280
GRkomu 込む...into220
GRkonasu 〜こなす, こなすhave the knack to deal with something; completely2150
GRkoso 〜こそthis, especially (emphasis),very2120
GRkoto ga aru ことがあるThere are times when290
GRkoto ha nai ことはないno need to250
GRkotoda ことだshould2110
GRkotodakara ことだからas always270
GRkotoka 〜ことかa lot2100
GRkotokara 〜ことからbecause2130
GRkotonaku 事無くwithout216-1
GRkotoni 〜ことに 「は」Very; Quite; The 〜 thing is that....27-1
GRkotoni-group ことに〜I decided, it was decided, it is a rule200
GRkotoninaru ことになるTo be decided, to be arranged270
GRkotoninatteiru ことになっているbecame a rule; been decided that; expected to; supposed to223-1
GRkudasai 下さいplease2210
GRkurai くらいabout, as2260
GRkurai.....wanai くらい〜はないA is the most B thing. There is not a more B thing than A is.24-1
GRkurainara-hougaii くらいなら〜〜ほうがいいShow a strong feeling of opposition.2110
GRkuseni くせにalthough, despite2190
GRlooks/seems/heard-group よう・そう・らしい・聞いたlooks like or seems like200
GRmai-1 〜まいwon't (do something)250
GRmai-2 〜まいprobably won't223-1
GRmai-4 〜まいDon't do ~230
GRmaika まいかwill not [expresses a little uncertainty]260
GRmaika-2 まいかwon't you?210
GRmarude 丸でas if, practically241-1
GRmarude-2 まるでcompletely, entirely29-1
GRmiseru-2 みせるto show2210
GRmitamewatomokaku 見た目はともかくWhether (it/he/she~) is~~~or not, 230
GRmo-ba-mo も〜ば〜もnot only, but also260
GRmoba も〜ばBoth(,,,,)and(,,,,,)220
GRmokamawazu 〜もかまわずdont mind, dont care about230
GRmono 〜ものbecause, should, like to240
GRmonoda ものだa thing that, the thing25-2
GRmonoda-2 ものだ(thing) you know? isn't it?217-1
GRmonodakara 〜ものだからso, therefore (explaining something unavoidable)250
GRmonode ものでbecause of (that thing)230
GRmonodesukara ものですからbecause2110
GRmonogaaru 〜ものがあるthere is such a thing (essence), feels like215-1
GRmonoka ものかabsolutely not...290
GRmononara 〜ものならif .. is possible, then...2180
GRmonono 〜もののalthough29-1
GRmukeni 向けにfor, aimed at210
GRmuki 向きfor, facing, toward, aimed at212-1
GRmushiro むしろrather260
GRna-3 〜なVm na (positive command - sentence ending particle)220
GRnado; nanka; nante など; なんか; なんてand so on; and the like; for example; things like 〜216-1
GRnagara ながらVm, despite while, although2220
GRnaibakarika ないばかりかNot only not X, but also not Y. Both can be good things, or both bad.230
GRnaidehairarenai ないではいられないcannot help but, cannot stop doing211-1
GRnaikotohanai ないことは(も)ないit isn't the case that 〜 not 〜; it is not that 〜 not 〜26-1
GRnaikotoniha ないことにはif (it's) not; unless214-1
GRnakucha なくちゃMust;Have to230
GRnanode なのでsince280
GRndesu 〜んですexplain causes, reasons, grounds240
GRni wataru, ni watatte にわたる,にわたってfor,over,extending,stretching,ranging,covering240
GRniatatte; niatari に当たって; に当たりon the occasion of; at; in; before; prior to2161
GRnichigainai に違いないno mistake...definitely228-1
GRnihitoshii に等しいequivalent to2140
GRnihokanaranai にほかならないnothing but; merely; none other than29-1
GRniizon, niison に依存depending on, relying on2100
GRnikagirazu に限らずnot just, limited to270
GRnikagiri に限りonly if220
GRnikakawarazu かかわらずRegardless of2240
GRnikaketeha, nikaketemo にかけては, にかけてもregarding, about, concerning220
GRnikaketewa にかけてはregarding, about, concerning230
GRnikanshite に関してconcerning; with regard to; about; on2150
GRnikawatte 名詞が名詞に代わってuse Nounが instead of Nounに210-1
GRnikimatteiru にきまっている(It's been) decided; expected; definitely260
GRnikotaete に応えてin response to241
GRnikuwaete に加えてin addition to2101
GRnimokakawarazu にもかかわらずdespite; though; although; in spite of2260
GRnimotozuite に基づいてbased (up)on2100
GRnioite に於いてat/on/in this case223-1
GRniokeru における・おいてat, in, as for270
GRnioujite に応じて、に応じたcommensurate with, accordance with, depending on27-1
GRnisaishite に際してwhen; on the occasion of; at (the time of); in; upon (doing something)250
GRNisakidatte に先立ってbefore; preceeding; prior to210
GRnisakidatte; nisakidatsu に先立って; に先立つbefore; preceeding; prior to2110
GRnishiro,niseyo,nishitemo にしろ; にせ(も)よ; にしてもEven though; Even if; 215-2
GRnishiro,niseyo,nishitemo-2 にしろ; にせ(も)よ; にしてもIt doesn’t matter which; It doesn’t matter whether.25-1
GRnishitagatte; nishitagai に従って; に従いfollowing; in accordance with; as 〜, accordingly; in proportion to2120
GRnishitara 〜にしたらif (one had) 〜's perspective250
GRnishiteha 〜にしてはeven though (it is) ; for223-1
GRnishitemo 〜にしてもeven for210-2
GRnisotte 〜に沿ってgo along with; in line with2170
GRnisouinai に相違ないNobody argues; definitely; without a doubt290
GRnisuginai に過ぎないnothing more than2160
GRnisuru にするto make.23-1
GRnitaishite に対してtoward; to; in contrast to; whereas; in regard to; in; per2100
GRnitaru 〜に足るis plenty; has value260
GRnitomonatte に伴ってas; in proportion to; with2100
GRnitotteno にとってのto; for210-1
GRnitsuiteha についてはAs for ~ concerning ~212-1
GRnitsuke 〜につけeach time, whenever, either way270
GRnitsuki につきa, per, each212-1
GRnitsuki-2 〜につきdue to290
GRnitsurete につれてas; in proportion to; with219-1
GRniwatatte にわたってover; span(ning)213-1
GRniyoreba によればAccording to220
GRniyotte-2 によってdepending on24-1
GRnoamari の余りbecause of too much2181
GRnokotodakara のことだからas usual for220
GRnomi のみonly2130
GRnominarazu のみならずnot only, but also...270
GRnomotode のもとでbased on, under24-1
GRnoni のにdespite250
GRnuki 抜きwithout212-1
GRnuku ぬくcompletely; until the end280
GRokagede おかげでthanks to280
GRokeikini を契機にon the opportunity of240
GRoku おくto do it in advance OR to leave it in the current state expecting a later change2130
GRosoregaaru 恐れがあるworry about, there is a possibility, there is fear that216-1
GRppoi っぽい-like2140
GRrashite 〜からしてstarting from210
GRsae さえeven; only; just2271
GRsae-ba 〜さえ〜ばIf ~ just If ~ only28-1
GRsai 〜際when220-1
GRsaichuuni 最中にright in the middle of260
GRseide せいでbecause of, due to (indicates only negative meaning)214-1
GRseinisuru せいにするPut blame on240
GRshidai 次第as soon as; depending on2140
GRshidaide 〜次第でdepending on270
GRshika しかbut, only、just2150
GRshikanai 〜しかないno alternative, no option but to...217-1
GRsimultaneous-actions-group ついでに・を契機に・をきっかけにwhile doing A, do B26-1
GRsince/because-group から・のでbecause2100
GRsorede それでand then, after that; Due to that2220
GRsorega 其れがDespite that210
GRsoudan 相談Making requests (〜ください、〜ちょうだい、〜なさい、command form)215-2
GRsueni 〜末にin the end, result212-1
GRtabi, tabi ni たび、たびにeach time, every time whenever210
GRtabi, tabini たび、たびにeach time, every time, whenever270
GRtamaranai たまらない(1) intolerable, unbearable, unendurable, (2) cannot help (doing), cannot but do, anxious to do, (3) tremendous, out of this world, irresistible.270
GRtamonoda たものだused to240
GRtatoe-temo たとえeven if2120
GRtatokoro た形ところjust as I'd, right at the moment when I'd214-1
GRtatokorode た形ところでeven if you do... it will not result to..28-1
GRtatotan たとたんSee [とたん(に)]250
GRtatsumoride た形 積もりでinstead of (hypothetical action)26-1
GRteha 〜てはVte, (te-form verb + contrastative ha wa)230
GRteirai て以来since; ever since; from here on280
GRtekaradenaito; tekaradenakereba て形からでないと; て形からでなければNot Until 〜;If I don't 〜, I can't 〜; I can't 〜 unless I 〜.29-1
GRtekoso 〜てこそnot until, only after, of all things220
GRtenaranai てならないCannot help -ing; Unbearably; Irresistibly210-2
GRteshouganai; tetamaranai てしょうがない; てたまらないCan't help but 〜; Extremely 〜; Very 〜2100
GRtetamaranai てたまらないbe dying to do something, to feel X strongly, can't help it...222-1
GRteyagaru てやがるEmphasize a disliking of the action taken.230
GRtobakarini とばかりにas if; as if ~ were convinced that; as if ~ believed that; as if ~ decided that250
GRtodoujini と同時にand at the same time212-1
GRtohakagiranai とは限らないnot always, not necessarily219-1
GRtoieba と言えばspeaking of ~2130
GRtoittara といったらExpress admiration/horror; eg, how +adjective, so+adjective290
GRtoittemo といってもbut215-1
GRtoiukotoda ということだit must mean, it boils down to29-1
GRtoiumono というものthat thing called217-1
GRtoiumonodehanai; toiumonodemonai というものではない; というものでもないDoesn't mean that; It's not (true) that; Not necessarily250
GRtoiuto と言うとwhen you talk of, speaking of, when you say240
GRtoiuyori というよりrather, more than280
GRtoka とかIt seems that; I heard that24-1
GRtokoroni, tokorohe, tokorowo ところに、ところへ、ところを(Just) when210-1
GRtomokagiranai とも限らないthere's a chance that, it could be that230
GRtomokaku 兎も角anyhow; anyway; somehow or other; generally speaking; in any case28-1
GRtoori 通りin that way2110
GRtoshitara, tosureba, tosuruto としたら、とすれば、とするとif one did; if one were to260
GRtoshite としてas; in the capacity of2350
GRtoshiteha としてはfor250
GRtoshitemo 〜としてもeven if; assuming28-1
GRtotan(ni) 途端(に)as soon as, the instant250
GRtoutei 到底(can't) possibly / very much280
GRtowazu 問わずregardless of230
GRtsui ついwithout thinking, despite myself280
GRtsuideni ついでにwhile doing A, I had a chance to do B, since doing A anyway, do B2110
GRtsurete, nitsure つれて、につれmore....more230
GRtsutsu つつVm, -ing2180
GRtsutsuaru つつあるVm, middle of doing...、continues to226-1
GRtsuujite 通じてthrough, by215-1
GRtte って...said; no matter what27-1
GRuchini うちにwhile; during; as210-1
GRuchini-2 うちにbefore ... (something bad happens); while ... still (being OK), while (state still continue) and before the state is finished27-1
GRuchini-3 うちにAn unforseen change that occured during a described time frame.24-1
GRuede 上でupon, after213-1
GRueha 上はsince when23-1
GRueni 上にmoreover; what's more; additionally; not only214-1
GRunrelated-group を問わず・にかかわらず・もかまわずignoring, leaving aside200
GRuru 得るable to do270
GRviewpoint-group にとって・として・の上で・からいうと・から見るとfrom the point of view, based on210
GRwakeda 〜わけだof course, expected result250
GRwakedehanai わけではないIt does not (necessarily) mean that 〜; I don't mean that 〜; It is not (true) that 〜; It is not the case that 〜2180
GRwakeganai, wakehanai わけがない、わけはないThere is no reason (as to) why 〜; It is impossible (for) 〜; cannot280
GRwakeniha ikanai わけには いかないcannot; have no other choice but211-1
GRwarini わりにconsidering ..., for ...2140
GR かけるとwhen it comes to200
GRwo megutte 〜をめぐってsurrounding, concerning, about [/ focusing on / in connection with]270
GRwo/wa nuki ni shite 〜をぬきにして・はぬきにしてwithout, leaving out24-1
GRwochuushinni を中心にcenter on, in the middle of291
GRwohajime をはじめnot only, but also starting with27-2
GRwokomete を込めて[Verb Phrase] with all your [Noun Phrase]2100
GRwomegutte をめぐってregarding2120
GRwomotoni をもとにon basis of28-1
GRwomotonishite をもとにしてbased on240
GRwotowazu を問わずregardless (of)280
GRyappari, yahari やっぱり(やはり)As I thought; after all2210
GRyara-yara 〜やら〜やらparticle denoting uncertainty or a listing used for both words and clauses26-1
GRyomoya よもやsurely not230
GRyorimosarani よりもさらにmore than that; more than210
GRyoudehanaika 意向形ではないかwhy don't we28-1
GRyoudehanaika-2 ようではないかdoesn't it seem ~ ?240
GRyouganai 〜ようがないno way to2110
GRyoumonai ようもないthere's no way217-1
GRyounakigasuru ような気がするIt's like it could be...270
GRyouni-2 ようにbecame250
GRyouni-suru ようにするV, try to214-1
GRyouni-te ように〜てV, asking someone to ask someone else to do something (indirect order)210-1
GRzaruwoenai ざるをえないcan't avoid doing x2160
GRzu, zuni 〜ずWithout (doing)210-1
GRzunihairarenai 〜ずにはいられないcannot help217-1
GRadvanced -Advanced Topics300
GRageru 上げるto do something for someone else390
GRamari nai あまり + 動詞(否定形)not very, not much319-1
GRamari-2 あまりnot really37-1
GRattoiuma あっと言う間In a flash, before one knows it, in a blink of an eye, in no time, flash by, (time) flies380
GRau 合うVm, verb~together, mutually380
GRbakari-2 ばかりjust (just recently) / nothing but3180
GRbeki べきshould do Vru380
GRcasual Casual Patterns and SlangCasual Patterns and Slang300
GRCausative せる・させるmake, let (someone do something)330
GRdai 〜だい? (for casual questions)340
GRdarou だろうis, would be, probably is; isn't it?3160
GRdasu dashite dashita 出す、出して、出したto pay, to place, to issue, to stick out, to put forth, to serve340
GRde, ni, mae で・に・前 time and place prepositions at in on3140
GRdearou であろうI guess, wonder, probably, isn't it? 35-1
GRdearu であるTo be, is (formal equivalent of だ [da])340
GRdouse どうせafter all; eventually; at best35-1
GRdoushitemo どうしてもabsolutely, surely, by all means, no matter what, at any cost; after all320
GReba 条件形if3100
GRga suru がするto affect the senses (to taste, to smell of, to feel like, to give the sensation of etc.)340
GRgaru がるAb ~seems (of somebody else's emotions & desires)3100
GRha-2 〜は'ha (wa)' used to indicate contrast360
GRhakanai 儚いhopeless, fleeting, transient, fickle39-1
GRhazu believe that it is so; expect that it is so; it is supposed to be so323-1
GRhodo-2 ほど-2to the extent of; to the extent that ~; (not as) ~ as ~ ; about [REL. bakari; kurai] 340
GRhonorhum -Honorific and Humble Forms300
GRhoshii が欲しいN, to want something (desirative)314-1
GRhotondo ほとんど (殆・殆ど)most of / rarely340
GRhouga 方が(often it'd be better to do __) Such-and-such an option is something370
GRHow to write a Japanese letter 日本語の手紙の書き方Grammar points for writing in Japanese300
GRJaki 邪気Malice, bad feeling300
GRka shira. かしら。I wonder if... (A type of question mark)320
GRka-2 〜かwhether, the question of (sub sentence question)370
GRkadouka かどうかwhether, if3110
GRkai. かい。(A type of question mark)300
GRkana 〜かなI wonder.. (Based on か question particle.)350
GRkanousei 可能性Existence of possibility350
GRkata -方how to _____, way to _____, 330
GRkininaru 気になるthinking about, concerned about, worried about330
GRkonna こんなsuch; this; like this; this; of this kind319-1
GRkoto ni naru ことになるit has been decided/arranged that320
GRkotode ことでby doing this (meant to highlight a method or means)320
GRkotonisuru ことにするDecide to do something320
GRkurabemononinaranai 比べものにならないthere is no point comparing....370
GRkurai, gurai くらい、ぐらい (位)to the extent that; so ~ that ~ almost ~; at least; the only ~; rather than ~ 370
GRkureru くれる (呉れる)to give me, to do for me, I was given 3120
GRmadeni までにby __[day, date, time, etc.]__320
GRmaeni 前にbefore [action]331
GRmama as it is, leave as it is, (remain) unchanged370
GRmitai みたいlooks like360
GRmorau 貰うto get312-1
GRna 〜な(particle used with na-adjectives)330
GRna-2 〜なVru, (negative command - sentence ending particle)370
GRnaa なあ、な〜、なAdds emphasis - sentence ending particle; Emphasizes personal desires350
GRnado 〜などand etc.350
GRnaka, ue, shita, etc. 〜中に、〜上に、〜下に、などTalking about relative location of an object380
GRnakereba narimasen なければなりませんmust ____; really should _____; it won't do if you don't ____.320
GRnanoni 〜なのにbut, although (contrast, surprising)3210
GRnara ならif3100
GRnaru なるUsed much like the な of na-adjectives - somewhat archaic.320
GRnasai なさいInformal Imperative (request form)350
GRnashi なしwithout320
GRnihanshite に反してagainst, contrary to3220
GRnikagitte に限ってof all the ... / especially / only / just3150
GRnikui にくいIs diffcult to do370
GRninaru になるTo become34-1
GRnisuru-2 にするTo decide on, to choose320
GRnitotte にとってto; for317-1
GRnitsuite についてregarding, about315-2
GRno da のだexplanation320
GRno-2 〜のTurn a phrase ending in a verb into a 'noun phrase'350
GRno-3 〜の? (sentence ending particle - question) [F]3130
GRnoni-2 のにin order to, to350
GRpassive 〜れる・〜られるpassive verb ending310-1
GRpolite 礼儀正しい Polite Form and Verb Stems (〜です、〜ます)300
GRrashii らしいseem, look like, apparently, I heard370
GRsaseru させるmake, let someone do something390
GRsekkaku せっかくwith effort350
GRshi and380
GRshimau しまう (仕舞う・終う・了う)Vte, (Definitely, completely [often to ones regret] do V)330
GRshould Things that should be a certain wayThings that should be a certain way (はず、べき、べく、べからず)300
GRshould do/better to/ought to/have to するべき・ほうが良い・しなければならないyou should300
GRsigns Showing signs of somethingShowing signs of something (〜がる、ばかり、〜めく)300
GRsimilar 類似Various ways to express similarity and hearsay (よう、〜みたい、〜そう、〜そうだ、〜らしい、〜っぽい)300
GRsono mama no kotoba そのままの言葉Set expressions or phrases350
GRsou そうVm, Looks like380
GRsugiru すぎるtoo; too much; excessively3110
GRtai たいVm, wanting to do ___340
GRtame In order to, because of, for370
GRtara たらif, when (verb form)3150
GRtari suru form たり する formdoing things like V+ing390
GRte 〜て([verb]-te, connects two sentences)3100
GRtearu て形+ある (て在る・て有る)Vte something has been purposely put into a state340
GRtehaikenai て形+はいけない (ては行け無い)you shouldn't, one should not314-1
GRteiru て形+いる (て居る)Vte (Continuing states, experience, repetative events)/ doing currently320
GRtekuru て形+くる (て来る)Vte go, do something, and return340
GRtemiru て形+みる (て見る)to try (out)340
GRtendency TendenciesTendencies (〜がち、〜つつ、きらいがある)300
GRteshimau て形+しまう (て仕舞う・て終う・て了う)wind up ____ing, end up ___ing, finish ____ing313-1
GRto 〜と(on when) doing, if390
GRto douyou と同様the same way as, as well as310
GRtoiukotodesune ということですね (と云う事ですね)your message is that ...310
GRtoki 〜時when331
GRtokoro ところplace, time, occasion350
GRtokoro de ところで (所で・処で)by the way360
GRtoomou 意向形と思うI think I will (do)310-1
GRtotemo ~ nai とても〜ないCan`t possibly320
GRtotomoni と共にas well as; with; along with; at the same time; when; as; while310-1
GRtsumoridatta 積もりだったI had the intention to do (but I didn't)39-1
GRtsuzukeru 続けるkeep on doing ...37-1
GRverb stem + dasu/dashita ~出すbegin/start...360
GRwa 〜わ(adds emphasis) [female]33-1
GRwake meaning; reason; circumstances3120
GRwo-2 〜をarea passed through (通過点)340
GRwo-3 〜を(marks point of departure) 出発点340
GRwokiita を聞いたI heard3110
GRyasui やすいeasy to V38-1
GRyatto やっとfinally33-1
GRyo 〜よ! (exclamation mark, add emphasis, denote new information being imparted)340
GRyori よりthan, rather than370
GRyori-2 よりmore ____330
GRyotei 予定be planning to do~330
GRyou ようappearance, looks, seems340
GRyouniiu ように言うV, To say to (do something)350
GRyouninaru ようになるIndicates a change which has taken place or will take place.360
GRyoutosuru 〜ようとするTry to do something, but the nuance is that it was unsuccessful.340
GRyoutosuru, part II 〜おうとするとA voluntary action stopped just before being completed330
GRzuni ずにwithout320
GR~ no you na 〜のような (〜の様な)just like, alike to, similar to300
GR~ageru ~上げるSomething has just been finished300
GR~tokoro (da) 〜ところ(だ) (所だ・処だ)I am about to / I was about to 360
GRそう そうI hear that360
GR(go,o,mi,on) (honorific) respected-___460
GR-hajimeru 〜始めるto begin/start VERB-ing480
GRAdana, Nikkuneemu あだ名 (綽名・渾名)、ニックネームnick name420
GRadjectives_ex Adjective Practice ExercisesAdjective Practice Exercises400
GRadv_volitional Advanced VolitionalAdvanced Volitional (まい、であろう、かろう)400
GRano あのthat480
GRaru 有るis (inanimate)4130
GRBasic Japanese Grammar 基本的な 日本語 文法Basic Grammar Terms400
GRcopula_ex State-of-Being Practice ExercisesState-of-Being Practice Exercises410
GRda 〜だThe 'copula' : expresses conditions. X is Y.4120
GRdashita だしたBegan/Begun, Started4240
GRde 〜でby means of, by, [action] at a place4150
GRdemo でもbut440
GRdoushite どうしてwhy?, what for?440
GRga 〜が(subject marker)4130
GRga-2 〜がbut4180
GRha 〜は'topic marker' (also shown as 'wa')460
GRhe 〜へindicates direction of verb. Also pronounced 'e'440
GRhiragana ひらがなHiragana is the basic Japanese phonetic alphabet.400
GRhiragana_ex ひらがな Practice Exercisesひらがな Practice Exercises-400
GRI-adjective Conjugation い形容詞変化How to conjugate regular adjectives ending in "i".480
GRi-adjectives 大きいusing adjectives470
GRijou-2 以上exceeding, above421-2
GRikura いくら (幾等)how much4150
GRiroiro 色々Various; various colors46-2
GRiru いる (居る)Is (animate)4110
GRis, am, are (polite, NA-adjective) desuis, am, are400
GRka 〜か? (basic question particle)440
GRkanji 漢字Writing system based on ancient chinese pictographs400
GRkara からbecause450
GRkara-2 てからafter470
GRkara-made から〜までfrom ... until45-1
GRkatakana_ex カタカナ Practice Exercisesカタカナ Practice Exercises400
GRkeredomo けれどもbut, however440
GRkore, sore, are これ(此・是・之・惟)、それ(其), あれ(彼)this, that, the other430
GRmade までtill, to480
GRmitai na みたいなLike, Similar to450
GRmo 〜もalso480
GRmo-2 〜も(with -ve) neither ... nor , also not, either440
GRnagai 長い、永いlong (length, time)460
GRnaide ないでwithout430
GRnani What490
GRne 〜ねisn't it?4130
GRni 〜に(location marker, time marker, direction marker)4160
GRni-2 〜にto, from (indirect object marker)450
GRno 〜の's, of440
GRnode のでbecause, and440
GRparticles_ex 「は、も、が」 Particle Exercises「は、も、が」 Particle Exercises400
GRRespectful Verbs I 敬語どうしWill you _____?400
GRshikashi しかし (然し・併し)However, but45-1
GRsukoshi 少しa bit...4110
GRsuru するto do (irregular verb)430
GRTe Form of Verbs て形An easy method to conjugating verbs into te form.400
GRtsumori つもり (積もり・積り)One's intention; conviction; belief416-1
GRVerb Groups [in progress]Ichidan verbs430
GRVerb Groups I -Introduction to Verb Conjugation400
GRverb stem + tai 〜たいI want to (verb)430
GRwo 〜を'object marker' (also shown as 'o') 目的480
PHattachments 添付I'm attaching the presentation527-1
PHclosings 結語closing an email535-1
PHcompany-intro 会社紹介we are #1 in our field5760
PHcongratulations おめでとう!well done!51010
PHcontract 契約についてrelating contracts, modifications554-1
PHdelays 納入や出荷遅延の苦情sorry its late!5291
PHdelivery 納品sending the goods546-1
PHemail メールの内容についてregarding this email512-1
PHexhibition 展示会an exhibition of software5130
PHfollow-up 会議の後524-1
PHinquiry お問い合わせmaking and responding to inquiries5121-1
PHintroductions 紹介した際introducing your company567-1
PHinvitation 招待please join us532-2
PHmeetings 会議setting up meeting times544-1
PHopenings メールを初めてways to start a business email5480
PHorder 注文thanks for your order5470
PHresults 結果5260
PHspecification 仕様we want 10 of the red ones5210
PHtechnical 技術について5100
PHthanks お礼thanks for your help51130
PHtime 時間に関してschedule, dates, deadlines590
PHbooks 本についてI like to read6270
PHcoffee コーヒーI like mine black6210
PHfriends 友達についてall you need is...6800
PHgreetings 挨拶casual intros6300
PHintro 自己紹介self introduction6100
PHlunch 昼飯6460
PHmon 〜もんUsed to reply dissatisfaction in very casual speech640
PHmy-job 仕事についてI wear a uniform at work620
PHquestions 質問put your questions in this category!65-2
PHsoc-closings 終わるclosing a social email6120
PHsoc-invite 招待casual invitation to party6140


jgram 2018