Sorry...no Notes exist yet for this entry... [ Add Note(s) ]
More Advanced Volitional Forms
to cover some other ways in which the volitional form is used, most notably, the negative volitional form.
You may have seen the negative volitional form in a verb conjugation table and wondered, "What the heck is that used for?" Well the answer is not much, or
to put it more accurately, there are various ways it can be used but almost all of them are extremely stiff, old-fashioned and seldom used. In fact, it's so
seldomly used, this is the only explanation I found in English on the web or anywhere
else. (I also found this
one in Japanese.)
The negative volitional is simply the negative version of the regular volitional. What that means is that there is a will for something to not happen or that someone
is set out to not do something. In other words, because one is trying not to do something, it's probably not going to happen. Essentially, it can also become a very stiff and old-fashioned version of
hear it in movies or comics for characters that fit that type of role.
Verbs are conjugated to the negative volitional by simply attaching 「まい」 to the verb. Another alternative is to attach 「まい」 to the stem.
The conjugation for the negative volitional is quite different from those we are used to because it is always the last conjugation to apply even for the
masu-form. In other words, there is no way to conjugate 「まい」 to the masu-form, you simply attach 「まい」 to the masu-form conjugation.
Using 「まい」 to express a will to not do something
Attach 「まい」 to the end of the verb
例） 見る → 見るまい 例） 行く → 行くまい
You can also add 「まい」 to the stem
例） する → しまい 例） 認める → 認めまい
This conjugation must always come last. For masu-form, attach 「まい」 to the masu-form verb.
例） なる → なり → なります → なりますまい
- Your opponent is a master of the sword. I doubt you can win so easily.
- I won't approve of such an unreasonable method！
something. But that doesn't mean you can use the negative volitional to say "let's not". Also, while you can use it as an attempt to
carries a very strong determination to not do something, as you'll see in the examples.
- Until that time, I had decided in my heart to not meet him by any means.
- That person had sworn to never lie again.
Using the volitional to express a lack of caring
We will now learn a grammar that's actually practical for everyday use using the negative volitional grammar. Basically, we can use both
volitional and negative volitional forms to say it doesn't matter whether something is going to happen or not. This is done by attaching
「が」 to both the volitional and the negative volitional form of the verb that doesn't matter.
Using the volitional to express a lack of relation
Attach 「が」 to the volitional and negative volitional form of the verb.
例） 見る → 見よう、見まい → 見ようが見まいが 例） 食べる → 食べよう、食べるまい → 食べようが食べるまいが
- Whether that guy is going to college or not, it has nothing to do with me.
- Whether there is time or not, there's nothing to do but make it on time.
- The viruses lately have been strong and whether you run a program or not, I hear it will spread just by looking at the page.
Using 「であろう」 to express likelihood
We already found out that the negative volitional can be used as kind of a formal version of
produce 「であろう」. Remember 「でしょう」 can already be used as a polite form, so this form is even a step above that in formality. We'll see what
kind of language uses this form in the examples.
Using 「であろう」 to express likelihood
Attach 「であろう」 to the noun, adjective, or verb.
例） 困難 → 困難であろう 例） する → するであろう
（１） 今後50年、人間が直面するであろう問題に正面から向き合って、自ら解決をはかりつつ、そのノウハウが次の産業となるシナリオを考えたい。(from www.jkokuryo.com)
- I would like to directly approach problems that humans have likely encounter the next 50 years and while measuring solutions, take that knowledge and think about scenarios that will become the next industry.
（２） もちろん、生徒数減少の現在、学科の新設は困難であろうが、職業科の統廃合や科内コースの改編などで時代に合わせた変革が求められているはずである。(from www1.normanet.ne.jp)
- Of course, new educational facilities will likely be difficult with this period of decreasing student population but with reorganizations of subjects and courses within subjects, there is supposed to be demand for reform fit for this period.
Using 「かろう」 as volitional for 「い」 endings
「であろう」 but for the negative tense? The answer is to use yet another type of volitional for negative tenses and i-adjectives used only in formal and literary contexts.
You may remember that 「だろう」 could only be used for nouns and na-adjectives. You can think of this grammar as a very old-fashioned version for
i-adjectives and negative 「い」 endings.
The conjugation rule is simple: remove the last 「い」 and attach 「かろう」. You can use it for negative tenses and i-adjectives just like the 「かった」 past conjugation
Using 「かろう」 to express volition for 「い」 endings
Drop the last 「い」 and attach 「かろう」
例） ではない → ではなかろう 例） 早い → 早かろう
Add Entry to Your Study List Choose the priority of studying you want to assign to this item from the drop-down select list
and then hit the save button. This will be used for sorting your personal study list.
If you wish to delete an entry that's already in your list, just set the difficulty to '0'