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<< copula | da >>

State-of-Being Practice Exercises (copula_ex)
    Meaning: State-of-Being Practice Exercises
    JLPT Level: 4
    Category: lesson
    Author: TaeKim

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Vocabulary used in this section

In the following exercises, we will practice the state-of-being conjugations we just covered. But first, you might want to learn or review the following useful nouns that will be used in the exercises.
To start with, I have listed the kanji you will need for the vocabulary for your convenience. The link will take you to a diagram of the stroke order. However, it doesn't clearly show the direction (though you can kind of tell by the animation) so you should check with a kanji dictionary if you're not sure. I recommend practicing the kanji in the context of real words (such as the ones below).
  1. - person
  2. - child
  3. - small
  4. - middle
  5. - big
  6. - friend
  7. - life
  8. - ahead
  9. - study
  10. - school
  11. - high
  12. - car
  13. - accompanying
  14. - reach
Here is the list of some simple nouns that might be used in the exercises.
  1. うん - casual word for "yes" (yeah, uh-huh)
  2. ううん - casual word for "no" (nah, uh-uh)
  3. これ - this
  4. それ - that
  5. あれ - that over there
  6. こう - (things are) this way
  7. そう - (things are) that way
  8. 人 【ひと】 - person
  9. 大人 【おとな】 - adult
  10. 子供 【こども】 - child
  11. 友達 【ともだち】 - friend
  12. 車 【くるま】 - car
  13. 学生 【がくせい】 - student
  14. 先生 【せんせい】 - teacher
  15. 学校 【がっこう】 - school
  16. 小学校 【しょうがっこう】 - elementary school
  17. 中学校 【ちゅうがっこう】 - middle school
  18. 高校 【こうこう】 - high school
  19. 大学 【だいがく】 - college

Conjugation Exercise 1

We are now going to practice the state-of-being conjugations in order. Take each noun and conjugate it to the following forms: the declarative, negative state-of-being, past state-of-being, and negative past state-of-being.
Sample: 人 = 人だ人じゃない人だった人じゃなかった

1. これ
declarative = これだ
negative = これじゃない
past = これだった
negative-past = これじゃなかった

2. 大人
declarative = 大人だ
negative = 大人じゃない
past = 大人だった
negative-past = 大人じゃなかった

3. 学校
declarative = 学校だ
negative = 学校じゃない
past = 学校だった
negative-past = 学校じゃなかった

4. 友達
declarative = 友達だ
negative = 友達じゃない
past = 友達だった
negative-past = 友達じゃなかった

5. 学生
declarative = 学生だ
negative = 学生じゃない
past = 学生だった
negative-past = 学生じゃなかった

Conjugation Exercise 2

In this second exercise, we are really going to test your conjugation knowledge as well as the vocabulary by translating some simple English sentences. Please note that while the positive, non-past state-of-being can be implied, for the purpose of this exercise, we will assume it's always declaratory. Don't forget that this creates a very firm and declaratory tone.
Sample: Is student. = 学生だ。

1. Is college. 大学だ。
2. Is not high school. 高校じゃない。
3. Was teacher. 先生だった。
4. Is adult. 大人だ。
5. Was not child. 子供じゃなかった。
6. This was the way it was. こうだった。
7. Wasn't that over there. あれじゃなかった。
8. Is not middle school. 中学校じゃない。
9. Is friend. 友達だ。
10. Was not car. 車じゃなかった。
11. Was this. これだった。
12. That's not the way it is. そうじゃない。

Question Answer Exercise

In this last exercise, we'll practice answering very simple questions using the state-of-being. The yes or no answer (うん or ううん) will be given and it is your job to complete the sentence. In deciding whether to use the declaratory 「だ」, I've decided to be sexist here and assume all males use the declaratory 「だ」 and all females use the implicit state-of-being (not the case in the real world).

Q) 学生?
A) ううん、学生じゃない

Q1) 友達?
A1) うん、友達(female)
Q2) 学校?
A2) ううん、学校じゃない
Q3) それだった?
A3) ううん、それじゃなかった
Q4) そう? (Is that so?)
A4) うん、そうだ(male)
Q5) これ?
A5) ううん、それじゃない(object is away from the speaker)
Q6) 先生だった?
A6) うん、先生だった
Q7) 小学校だった?
A7) ううん、小学校じゃなかった
Q8) 子供?
A8) うん、子供(female)

Copyright © 2003-2006 Tae Kim (
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