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<< sengatame | shidai >>

し [し] (shi)
    Meaning: and
    Example: we went shopping, and ate lunch
    JLPT Level: 3
    Category: grammar
    Author: dc

  [ Edit This Grammar Entry ]
Shi is different from a mere "and" because it carries a connotation of "not only".

This is why you often see constructions utilizing both 'shi' and 'sore ni' together, in the following format: "---- shi, sore ni ------"

Technically, this is a way of saying 'and', but it also emphasizes that the first quality listed is not the extent of it.

In English, think of the difference between "The restaurant is cheap and has delicious food", and "Not only is the restaurant cheap, it also has delicious food."

Same meaning conveyed, slightly different connotation.

"Sore ni" in this context roughly translates to "besides that..." and there's no hard and fast rule that says you have to use it or not, but it's generally more seen in situations where the second quality is not something one would directly expect from hearing the first. For instance, "Not only is he good at math, besides that he's also a marathon runner".

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ex #5244   ここでの討論はおもしろいものでした、困惑させたり、ときにはぞっとする内容のものもありました。 
The debate has been interesting, (and) confusing, and sometimes horrifying.  
ex #5245   ロッククライミングも、海で深く潜ることもした、インドネシアの熱帯雨林で眠ったこともある。 
I've done rock climbing and deep-sea diving and slept in rain forests in the jungle of Indonesia.  
ex #5246   開拓者達は辛い生活をした、彼らの子供もそうだった。 
Pioneer men and women had a hard life, and so did their children.  
ex #5247   彼は幸福だ。1つには、昇進した、それに結婚したばかりだから。 
He is happy. For onething, he's got a promotion and for another he has just got married.  
ex #5248   母はその知らせを喜んでいた、私もそうでした。 
My mother was happy about the news, and so was I.  
ex #5249   洋子はジョンを完全に無視した、ジョンのほうも彼女を同じように無視をした。 
Yoko igonored John completely, and he did the same to her.  
ex #5250   1つには私は忙しい、もう1つには興味もない。 
For one thing, I'm busy; (and) for another, I'm not interested.  
ex #5251   あの絵も美しい、この絵もまた美しい。 
That painting is beautiful, and so is this one.  

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  See Also:  
  • tari suru form    (-し is usually used for phrases that describes your subject. for example you can say that you like a certain singer because he has a good voice, nice attitude and he is handsome. you end the sentence with a conclusion that you like the singer, and enumerate the reasons by using し.
    〜たり is used for a sequence of verbs: eating, drinking and fooling around.) [dc]
  • to と    (and. used for listing nouns. ) [kieran]
[ Add a See Also ]
bamboo4ex #5244 and ex #5245 are incorrect.
MikiFinally corrected. Are they good enough? 
adamstudioIs there a rule or principle about when to use だ in a し、、し、、construction? It seems to overlap with な adjectives. For example:


... but also with temporal nouns as in:


Thoughts about a principle?

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